Anthro Wk 2

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Anthro Wk 2
2010-10-04 18:20:38
Cultural Relativism

Cultural Relativism 2.0
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  1. What has anthropology been studying in recent decades instead of cultural relativism?
    Human Rights
  2. How is cultural relativism perceived outside anthropology?
    It is an excuse that allows abusive behavior in promoting tolerance in intolerance.
  3. How does cultural relativism fit with consumerism?
    It makes emphasis on consumer choice. Ex. Would be breakfast cereal. There are many choices, and you can have a preference.
  4. What changes in human societies of the last 50 years has required adjustments to cultural relativism?
    They are much more interconnected, because of communication transportation. They are both much faster now.
  5. How has the particularist view of cultural relativism interfered with anthropological understanding?
    • There is a largely abandoned territory of evolutionary psychology.
    • "are therefore ill-equipped to offer anything more substantive than critique. This is unfortunate, because nuanced, nonreductionist evolutionary
    • approaches ask important questions that warrant wider attention in our discipline and beyond. To offer a convincing vision of the human condition"
  6. What did Boas argue against when he argued for cultural relativism?
    Wanted to expand the idea of societies non material values rather than wealth. Against mechanized warfare.
  7. According to Boas, why are cultural practices “uniquely satisfying” to the members of a society?
    The enculturation process children learn, and are comforted by what they are taught.
  8. Why are all people ethnocentric?
  9. How does Herskovits justify criticizing his own society when he does not accept a universal scale for judging society?
    “My own society is lacking” the reason the west is more imposed for criticism is its power.
  10. What kind of relativity did Kluckhohn criticize in 1955?
    The 1 kind of relativity you can criticize, ethical relativity
  11. What feature of American society made cultural relativism more important in American than in Britain?
    Our society was formed from a very multi cultural perspective.
  12. How did the American Anthropological Association react to the Universal Declaration of Human Rights? What was the effect?
    Eleanor Roosevelt produced a universal set of human rights. Effect – made anthro seem cruel and opened up voices outside from western legal.
  13. How are Universal Human Rights a reflection of the specifics of Western culture?
    West culture values individuals most don’t think individual most as important as a group.
  14. How did feminist scholarship affect the view of human rights in anthropology?
    The study of feminism that changed anthros view from human rights because a lot of woman in all societies and they have more circumstances.
  15. How did Rubin’s writing alter the concept of culture?
    He wrote “Traffic in Woman” from a womans perspective. Many woman disagreed with his writings.
  16. What is similar between Abu Lughod’s writing concerning Muslim women and Shweder’s argument about female genital mutilation?
    Woman should not be segregated. Woman like his writings because it is an area where they are free from men.
  17. How is tolerance connected to politics.
    When another society is weak we tolerate them, but when another society is a threat, we do not tolerate them
  18. What are the three main parts of relativism?
    • Methodological Relativism
    • Cognitive Relavitism – mental view of the world.
    • Moral/Ethical Relativism
  19. What kind of universals is found by the position that human societies share deep moral principles that are applied in different ways depending on the circumstance?
  20. What have anthropologists proposed as general principles of morality?
  21. What does Brown mean by the term “Dialogic morality”?
    This approach rejects the cultures-as-discrete-worlds model of classical relativism in favor of one that envisions societies as part of an expansive moral community.
  22. How does globalization present new moral problems?
    Globalization is that info and people can move around much easier now. For example: organ transplants, where did the organ come from.
  23. How do anthropologists view the evolution of morality in the West? Why?
    They are not sure they made progress
  24. What is the basic problem for the biological approach to human morality (e.g., evolutionary psychologists?
  25. Why haven’t anthropologists been more prominent in debates about multiculturalism?
    Haven’t addressed problem of shared society
  26. What is the anthropological consensus on cultural relativism?
    Exaggerates differences between cultures and mutual understanding
  27. What is Cultural Relativism 2.0?