William Perry's theory of intellectual development
Dualism - students view as either right or wrong
Relativism - the perfect answer may not exist; desire to know other opinions
Commitment to relativism - Willing to change opinion based on new facts
Habits, customs, art, religion, science, and political behavior of a given group.
Learning the behaviors and expextations of a culture.
When a race views itself as superior to others
A group sees itself as the standard by which other enthnic groups are measured
Emic v Etic
Emic is the view of helping client understand his/her culture.
Etic focuses on equality
Autoplastic v Alloplastic
Autoplastic helps client change to cope w/ environment.
Alloplastic helps client change the environment.
Racial/Cultural Identity Development (R/CID)
Conformity - lean toward dominant culture
Dissonance - question and confusion about identity
Resistance and immersion - reject dominant culture and accepting own culture
Introspection - mixed feelings related to resisitance/immersion
Synergetic articulation & awareness - against racial and cultural oppression
Native American clients
Keep suffering private
Speak w/ few words
Do not engage in eye contact
African American clients
Like to be taught concrete skills
Short tem counseling is effective
Asian American clients
Value academic/professional success
Hispanic American clients
Focuses on the past and unconscious
Repression, displacement: taking anger out on a safe target, projection: pointing something out in someone else, reaction formation: acting in opposite manner, Sublimation: express unacceptable impulse in acceptable manner, Rationalization: overrate/underrate, Suppression/denial: consciously not think about something, and Transference
Freud's theory of personality
Superego - Moral mind
Ego - Reality mind that balances id and superego
Id - Desires/impulses/pleasure
Creator of Analytic Psychology
Analytic Psychology (Carl Jung)
Animus - masculine side of females
Anima - femine side of males
Extroversion and introversion
Author of Individual Psychology
Adler's Individual Psychology
Behavior is one's unconscious attempt to compensate for feelings of inferiority.
Focus on Birth order
Who is the father of Behaviorism
John B. Watson
Who created Behavioral Therapy?
Developed by B.F. Skinner
Behavior is molded solely by its consequences.
A added stimulus that increases a behavior.
A stimulus that is removed to increase a behavior.
ex: Eliminating a loud noise while studying
Social Learning Theory
Behavior increase due to seeing someone else getting reinforced. Also called modeling or vicarious learning.
Systematic Desensitization and relaxation
Person-Centered Humanistic Therapy
Carl R. Rogers
Empathy, Genuineness, and unconditional positive regard.
No belief in unconscious as humans can control their own behavior.
Form of CBT
Replacing irrational beliefs with rational beliefs.
ABC model - Activating event, Beliefs system, emotional Consequences.
Aaron T. Beck's cognitive therapy
Similar to REBT
Emphasizes that automatic thoughts are distortions of reality.
Builds off of Freud's theory. Ego states similar to Superego, Ego, and Id; Parent, Adult, and Child.
Often combined with Gestalt therapy
Focus on present behavior. Reality can be created with behaviors that are chosen.
Michael White and David Epston
Client's lives are constructed by stories. Stories are rewritten.
Problems are externalized
Steve DeShazer and Insoo Kim Berg
First and second order change
Tied to family therapy. First order change is when a client makes a change that does not alter the structure of the family. Second order change alters the structure of the family.