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What is Apocalyptic?
- Writings about secret teachings and the end times.
- What the naked eye Cannot see, or will be seen in the future and heavenly.
- Shows future events
- Shows God's involvement behind human History
What kinds of things are discussed in apocalyptic prophecy?
It foretells Future events
(i.e. God gave Judah to the hand of Babylon)
- Describes the reason why which make Daniel a theological book
- Shows God's ivolvement behind human history
Who was Porphyry?
3rd century A.D. Philosopher
One who revived th writimgs of Plato
What Theological views did Porphyry hold?
- He was Neoplatonist
- Neoplatonism was a form of pantheism
- Pantheist believe that everything is god and God didn't or doesn't interact in earth's affairs
- God doesn't intervene in history
- Therefore there is no prophecy
- Wrote a book against Christianity called "Contra Christianem"
What did Porphyry believe about the book of Daniel?
and Why did he believe this?
Because he concluded there was no prophecy
- He was first person to say that Daniel wasn't written in the 6th Century B.C. but after. or vatacinium ex eventu
- Christianity lashed against this and burned all his books
but from 19th century on many claimed that Daniel was written after.
What objection to the traditional date of the book of Daniel arise with regard to the identification of Belshazzar and the lack of reference to Nabonidus in the book of Daniel?
How can these be resolved?
1 - Nabodinus was last king of Babylon
2 - Belshazzar was not a son of Nebuchadnezzar
3 - Nothing is said in Daniel about Nabodinus or any other successor of Nebuchadnezzar
4 - They say that Daniel's historical record is sketchy so no wonder he didn't mention Nabonidus
How they are resolved:
1- Nobonidus was a devotee of the moon-goddess
2 - When enthroned he had a dream of sin and tried to resurrect a service to this goddess
3 - Babylonians didn't like that he neglected Marduc
4 - Soon after reign went to live in Tema (remote desert) and worshiped his goddess
5 - He had to leave someone in charge, his son Belshazzar
6 - Belshazzar was Nebuchadnezzar's grandson
7 - Many claim that Daniel must not be written in 6th century B.C. because he refered to Belshazzar as Nebuchanezzar's son.
8 - But now we know that he was his grandson - this is evidence that Daniel was written in 6th century B.C.
What three languages were used in the Book of Daniel?
2 major languages
In which chapters of the book of Daniel are the three different laguages used. (Hebrew, Aramaic, and Greek)
2 major languages
- From 1:1 - 2:4a
and Chapters 8-12
Aramaic - From 2:4b - 7:28
- Greek - Dan 3:5,7, 10, 15
What were the major powers in the ear of Daniel?
Mid to Late 7th Century B.C.
Where were the powers in the era of Daniel located relative to Judah?
Egypt - Great Southern Power (South of Judah)
Assyria - North of Judah
Babylon - North of Judah
Persia - North of Judah
Explain how the geography of the Middle East made it impossible for the nation of Judah to escape involvement in the military conflicts of the major powers.
Judah was in the Middle of the Southern Power of Egypt and the Northern Powers of Assyria, Babylon, and Persia.
Egypt was in natural decline. Some powerful kings invaded Palestine and challenged the Northern super powers. Judah and Israel were often tempted to form alliances with Egypt agains the north.
Assyria were the first of a succession of empires that swallowed up parts of Palestine. They exiled Israel and subdued Judah. The empire collapsed when Niniveh fell to Babylonians in 612 B.C.
Babylon took over were Assyria left off. They took Judah into exile and successfully invaded Egypt. But their power was eroded by a series of weak rulers. in 539 B.C. Cyrus the Persian took over the empire with little opposition.
Persia was larger than its 2 predecessors. It was also more humane in returning exiles to their homelands (including Judah). The Persian empire was overrun by Alexander the Great in 331 B.C.
Who was King Johoiachin?
- Exiled from Jerusalem at 18, having ruled 3 months.
- Probably kept under house arrest until 37 years later given a place of honor in royal court.
- Seen as important figure by Jewish exiles.
- Probably died during the excile (2 Kings 24:1-15 --- 2 Kings 25L27-10)
Who was king Josiah?
- Personal name means "Yaweh Heals"
- Judah's king from about 640-609 B.C.
- He succeeded his father Amon (an idolatrous king, who only ruled for 2 years before being murdered by his servants.
- Became king at the age of 8 due to "wishes of the people of the land" (who but his father's assasins to death.
- his reign lasted for 31 years
Who was King Zedekiah?
Descendant of Josiah,
made king by Babylonians
Who was king Jehoiakim?
-Personal meaning - Yahweh has caused to stand
-Son of Josiah (who succeeded Johahaz as king of Judah.
- Jehoiakim was a throne name given to him by Pharao Neco f Egypt, who
What was the sequence of the kings of Judah: Josiah, Jehoiakim, Jehoiachin, , Zedekiah, ?
Josiah - (Good) (639-608) 31 years
Jehoahaz (608) three months
Jehoiakim (608-597) eleven years
Jehoiachin (597) three months
Zedekiah (597-586) eleven years
What were the family relationship to each other of the kings Jehoiachin, Josiah, Zedekiah, Jehoiakim?
- Made king by Egyptians Brother of Jahoahaz
Jehoiachin - Successor of Jehoakim
made king by the Babylonians
- Zedekiah - Descendant of Josiah,
What was the symbolic significance of Nebuchanezzar's removal of the temple treasures and members of the noble families from Judah?
The symbolic significance is that his god is more powerful than the God of Israel.
What was the practical significance of Nebuchanezzar's removal of the temple treasures and members of the noble families from Judah?
The Practical Significance was that the temple was also the treasure house... So Judah could not finance a rebellion
What is the significance of Nebuchanezzar renaming the captives?
1- Those in authority, usually parents, are the ones who name us - Shows Authority
2 - By naming them he is not just claiming to be their king and the king of Judah, but their father and part of the royal family
3 - Nebuchadnezzar is trying to make them his children.
4 - Names of his gods --- saying that his god is more powerful than the God of Israel
What is the probable reason for the command to worship the image in Daniel 3?
It is likely that the image was the god Marduc.
Neb. had just supressed a rebellion
What deity was represented by the image in Daniel 3, and why is this likely?
Probably the god marduc
How does the story of Daniel 3 relate to the policital and military history of Babylon?
Neb. had just supressed a rebellion in which he had to defend his own life with his own sword.
In what ways does the story of Daniel 6 resemble that of Daniel 3?
- - The king favored Danile because when he found out the issue he labored to save Daniel's life
- This was done in Chapter 3 when Neb wanted to give them a second chance
-When Daniel is delivered both kings aknowledge the God of Israel. this is an act of God.
- It is obvious to others that the 3 Hebrews and Daniel serve the God of Israel... it is public
- The idea of serving is closely related to worship.
How does the story of Daniel 6 relate to the concepts of divine sovereignty and judgment?
What are the four major themes of the narrative portion of the book of Daniel?
1 Sovereignty/ Judgment
How are the Four themes of the narrative portion of the book of Daniel (insert themes here) related to each other?
Sovereignity is both divine and human
This sovereignity is exercised through judgment
Both divine and human judment are themes in the book of Daniel
Describe the patterns of judments of condemnation and acquittal in Daniel 1-6.