Atoms, Elements, Molecules, and Compounds

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Coral
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39789
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Atoms, Elements, Molecules, and Compounds
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2010-10-04 21:22:41
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chemistry molecules compounds che
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Chapter 2 and 3 of CHE 130
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  1. Prefixes Used For Naming Molecular/Binary Compounds
    Naming convention: Prefix Element + Prefix Element + -ide

    • Mono = 1
    • Di = 2
    • Tri = 3
    • Tetra 4
    • Penta = 5
    • Sexta = 6
    • Septa = 7
    • Octa = 8
    • Nona = 9
    • Deca = 10

    ex) Cobalt Tetrachloride (CCl4)
  2. Ending "-ide"
    Indicates the last component of a molecular compound
  3. Oxyanions
    Anions composed of oxygen and another element
  4. Naming Conventions For Oxyanions
    • -ate
    • An oxyanion in a series with more oxygen (ex: NO3- nitrate)

    • -ite
    • An oxyanion in a series with less oxygen (ex: NO2- nitrite)

    • Hypo-
    • The oxyanion with the least oxygen in a series of >2 members (ex: ClO- hypochlorite)

    • Per-
    • The oxyanion with the most oxygen in a series of >2 members (ex: ClO4- perchlorate)
  5. States of Products and Reactions
    • (g) Gas
    • (l) Liquid
    • (s) Solid
    • (aq) Aqueous
  6. Chemical Equation Set-Up
    Reactants (state) -> Products (state)
  7. Isotope Notation
    Type One:

    X - A

    • Type Two:
    • A
    • X
    • Z
    • Z = Atomic #
    • A = Atomic Mass (P + N)
    • X = Chemical Symbol
  8. Naming and Forming of Ionic Compounds
    • Name (if charge variant - roman numerals)
    • ex 1: Iron (III) Hydroxide vs Iron (II) Hydroxide
    • ex 2: Magnesium nitrate

    • Xcharge
    • ex 1: Fe3+ , OH- -> Fe(OH)3
    • ex 2: MG2+ , NO3- ->Mg(NO3)2

    Note: Superscripts show charge, subscripts show ions
  9. Predicting a Charge on Monatomic Ions
    1) Main group metals lose electrons, forming a cation with the same number of electrons as the nearest noble gas, with nearest signifying the number of electrons closest to that element.

    2) Main group non-mentals gain electrons, forming an anion with the same number of electrons as the nearest noble gas.
  10. To Find the Atoms/Ions of an Element in a Compound Sample (g)
    • 1)
    • ____ g x 1 mol/compound molar mass = molar mass (mols)

    • 2)
    • molar mass (mols) x ratio A/ratio B = _____ mols

    • 3)
    • ______ mols x NA/1 mol = ions
  11. Converting Grams to Moles and Moles to Grams
    g -> mol

    ____ mol x g/1 mol = ____ gram

    • mol -> g
    • ____ g x 1 mol/g = ____ mol
  12. To Find the Number of Atoms in a Quantity of a Substance (g):
    _____ g x 1 mol/molar mass (g) x Na/mol = atoms
  13. To Find the Number of Grams from Moles
    ______ mol x molar mass(g)/1 mol = grams
  14. Avogadro's Constant
    6.022 x 1023

    Note: This is equivalent to 12g 126 C
  15. Acids
    Molecular compounds that release hydrogen ions (H+) when dissolved in water as their bonds are sufficiently polar to cleave apart. They have a pH <7.

    • Types
    • Binary: Hydrogen + Nonmetal
    • ex) HCl/Hydrochloric, HF/Hydrofluoric, HBr/Hydrobromic
    • Oxyacids: Hydrogen + oxyanion/polyatomic ion
    • ex) H2SO4/Sulfuric, HNO3/Nitric, H2PO4/Phosphoric, H2CO3/Carbonic

    Note: Not every hydrogen compound is acidic, an example being alcohols such as ethanol
  16. pooooooooooooooooooooop0p
    Polyatomic Ions
    Ions composed of 2 or more atoms. These bear a charge. ex) ClO-
  17. Elements and Compounds
    • Atomic Element: Exists in nature as single atoms i.e. they are not diatomic
    • ex) Xenon
    • Ionic Compound: Metal/Cation + Nonmetal/Anion OR Polyatomic Ion
    • ex) NiCL2, NaNO3
    • Molecular Element: Diatomic Molecules
    • ex) Bromine
    • Molecular Compound: Nonmetal/Anion + Nonmetal/Anion
    • ex) NO2
  18. Hydrates
    Ionic compounds that crystallize with a fixed amount of water in the spaces of their crystal matix.

    • ex) CuSO4 5H2O
    • Copper (II) Sulfate Pentahydrate
  19. Bases
    Hydrogen ion (H+) receptors that release hydroxide (OH-) when dissolved in water. They have a pH >7.

    ex) NaOH, KOH, NH3 (ammonium), CO3-2 (carbonate), HCO3-(bicarbonate)

    Note: Alcohols are not bases despite the OH group presence as they will not disassociate to OH- ions.
  20. Ionic Versus Molecular Compounds
    • Ionic Compounds
    • * Metal + Nonmetal
    • * Any compound with a polyatomic ion
    • * Conducts electricity (is an electrolyte) ie: Disassociates into ions in water
    • * High melting points
    • * Many are water soluble.
    • * They are held together by electrostatic attraction between + and - ions (ionic bonds). This bond is very strong.

    • Molecular Compounds
    • * Nonmetal + Nonmetal OR Metalloid
    • * Lower melting points as bonds between molecules are generally weak
    • * The are insulators not electrolytes
    • * Electrons are "tied up" in bonds or are in nonbonding pairs, so no conducting bonds exist
    • * Some are water soluble
    • * They are covalently bonded i.e they share electrons

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