Bio150Lab Review Quiz #4

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pjkaynas
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Bio150Lab Review Quiz #4
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2010-10-04 23:19:19
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Bio150Lab Review Quiz
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Bio150Lab Review Quiz #4
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  1. Axial skeleton
    • those bones that lie around the body's center of gravity
    • The axial skeleton can be divided into three parts, the skull, the vertebral column, and the bony thorax
  2. Appendicular skeleton
    bones of the limbs or appendages
  3. Articular cartilages
    cover the bone ends at movable joints
  4. Costal cartilages
    found connecting the ribs to the sternum (breastbone)
  5. Laryngeal cartilages
    largely construct the larynx (voice box)
  6. Tracheal and Bronchial cartilages
    reinforce other passageways of the respiratory system
  7. Nasal cartilages
    support the external nose
  8. Intervertebral discs
    separate and cushion bones of the spine (vertebrae)
  9. Perichondrium
    a dense connective tissue covering that surrounds cartilage
  10. Hyaline Cartilage
    the most abundant cartilage type in the body; provides firm support with some pliability
  11. Elastic Cartilage
    much more flexible than hyaline cartilage, and it tolerates repeated bending better

    Only the cartilages of the external ear and the epiglottis (which flops over and covers the larynx when we swallow) are elastic cartilage.
  12. Fibrocartilage
    consists of rows of chondrocytes alternating with rows of thick collagen fibers
  13. Compact bone
    looks smooth and homogeneous
  14. Spongy (or cancellous) bone
    is composed of small trabeculae (bars) of bone and lots of open space
  15. Long bone
    such as the femur and phalanges (bones of the fingers) are much more longer then they are wide, generally consisting of a shaft with heads at either end.

    Long bones are composed predominantly of compact bone
  16. Short bones
    are typically cube shaped, and they contain more spongy bone than compact bone

    e.g. the tarsals and carpals
  17. Flat bones
    are generally thin, with two waferlike layers of compact bone sandwiching a layer of spongy bone between them

    many flat bones are curved for example the bones of the skull
  18. Irregular bones
    bones that do not fall into one of the preceding categories

    e.g. the vertebrae are irregular bones
  19. Sesamoid bones
    are special types of short bones formed in tendons

    e.g. the patellas (kneecaps) are sesamoid bones
  20. Wormian or Sutural bones
    are tiny bones between cranial bones
  21. Bone markings
    scarred areas with and array of bumps, holes, and ridges; reveal where bones form joints with other bones, where muscles, tendons, and ligaments were attached and where blood vessels and nerves passed

    bone markings fall into two categories: projections and depressions
  22. Projections
    processes that grow out from the bone and serve as sites of muscle attachment or help form joints
  23. Depressions or cavities
    indentations or openings in the bone that often serve as conduits for nerves and blood vessels
  24. Diaphysis
    or shaft, observe its smooth surface, which is composed of compact bone.
  25. Periosteum
    fibrous membrane covering
  26. Perforating (Sharpey’s) fibers
    many fibers of the periosteum penetrate into the bone
  27. Osteoblasts
    bone forming cells
  28. Osteoclasts
    bone-destroying cells

    both cells are found on the inner or osteogenic, layer of the periosteum
  29. Epiphysis
    the end of the long bone, composed of a thin layer of compact bone that encloses spongy bone
  30. Articular cartilage
    covers the epiphyseal surface in place of the periosteum. b/c it is composed of glassy hyaline cartilage, it provides a smooth surface to prevent friction at joint surfaces.
  31. Epiphyseal plate
    a thin area of hyaline cartilage that provides for longitudinal growth of the bone during youth.
  32. Epiphyseal lines
    once the long bone has stopped growing, these areas are replaced with bone and appear as thin, barely discernible remnants
  33. Endosteum
    lining the shaft, also covers the trabeculae of spongy bone and lines the canals of compact bone.
  34. Trabeculae
    spongy bone has a spiky, open-work appearance, resulting from the arrangement of the trabeculae that compose it, whereas compact bone appears to be dense and homogeneous.
  35. Central (Haversian) canal
    runs parallel to the long axis of the bone and carries blood vessels, nerves, and lymph vessels through the bony matrix.
  36. Osteocytes
    mature bone cells
  37. Lacunae
    chambers
  38. Concentric lamellae
    concentric circles around the central canal
  39. Osteon or Haversian system
    central canal and all the concentric lamellae surrounding it

    The canaliculi allow each cell to take what it needs for nourishment and to pass along the excess to the next osteocyte.
  40. Canaliculi
    • tiny canals radiating outward from a central canal to the lacunae of the first lamella and then from lamella to lamella.
    • The canaliculi allow each cell to take what it needs for nourishment and to pass along the excess to the next osteocyte.
  41. Perforating (Volkmann’s) canals
    these canals run into compact bone and marrow cavity from the periosteum, at right angles to the shaft
  42. endochondral ossification
    • uses hyaline cartilage “bones” as patterns for bone formation. The major events of this process, which begins in the (primary ossification) center of the shaft of a developing long bone are:
    • The fibrous membrane covering the hyaline cartilage model is vascularized and converted to a periosteum
    • Osteoblasts at the inner surface of the periosteum secrete bone matrix around the hyaline cartilage model, forming a bone collar
    • cartilage in the shaft center calcifies and then hollows out, forming an internal cavity
  43. Periosteal bud
    (blood vessels, nerves, red marrow elements, osteoblasts, and osteoclasts) invades the cavity, which becomes the medullary cavity.
  44. Cranium
    enclose and protect the fragile brain tissue
  45. facial bones
    present the eyes in an anterior position and form the base for the facial muscles, which make it possible for us to present our feelings to the world.
  46. cranial vault or calvaria
    forming the superior, lateral, and posterior walls of the skull
  47. cranial floor or base
    • forming the skull bottom
    • The cranial floor has three distinct concavities, the anterior, middle, and posterior cranial fossae
  48. Bones that construct the cranium
    • eight bones construct the cranium, with the exception of two paired bones (the parietals and the temporals), all are single bones
    • The eight bones are Frontal bone, Occipital bone, Sphenoid bone, Ethmoid bone, Lacrimal bone, Palatine bone, Zygomatic bone, Nasal Bone
  49. Frontal bone
    anterior portion of cranium; forms the forehead, superior part of the orbit, and floor of anterior cranial fossa.
  50. Supraorbital foramen (notch)
    opening above each orbit allowing blood vessels and nerves to pass
  51. Glabella
    smooth area between the eyes
  52. Parietal bone
    posterolateral to the frontal bone, forming sides of cranium
  53. Sagittal suture
    midline articulation point of the two parietal bones
  54. Coronal suture
    point of articulation of parietals with frontal bone
  55. Temporal bone
    inferior to parietal bone on lateral skull. The temporals can be divided into four major parts: the squamous region abuts the parietals; the tympanic region surrounds the external ear opening; the mastoid region is the area posterior to the ear; and the petrous region forms the lateral portion of the skull base.
  56. Squamous suture
    point of articulation of the temporal bone with the parietal bone
  57. Zygomatic process
    a bridgelike projection joining the zygomatic bone (cheekbone) anteriorly. together these two bones form the zygomatic arch.
  58. Mandibular fossa
    rounded depression on the inferior surface of the zygomatic process (anterior to the ear); forms the socket for the mandibular condyle, the point where the mandible (lower jaw) joins the cranium.
  59. External acoustic meatus
    canal leading to eardrum and middle ear.
  60. Styloid process
    needlelike projection inferior to external acoustic meatus; attachment point for muscles and ligaments of the neck. This process is often broken off demonstration skulls
  61. Mastoid process
    rough projection inferior and posterior to external acoustic meatus; attachment site for muscles.
  62. Jugular foramen
    opening medial to the styloid process through which the internal jugular vein and cranial nerves IX, X, and XI pass.
  63. Carotid canal
    opening medial to the styloid process through with the internal carotid artery passes into the cranial cavity.
  64. Internal acoustic meatus
    opening on posterior aspect (petrous region) of temporal bone allowing passage of cranial nerves VII and VIII.
  65. Foramen lacerum
    a jagged opening between the petrous temporal bone and the sphenoid providing passage for a number of small nerves and for the internal carotid artery to enter the middle cranial fossa (after it passes through part of the temporal bone).
  66. Occipital bone
    most posterior bone of cranium-forms floor and back wall. Joins sphenoid bone anteriorly via its narrow basioccipital region
  67. Intervertebral discs
    the vertebrae are separated by pads of fibrocartilage, that cushion the vertebrae and absorb shocks
  68. ruptured discs
    the nucleus pulposus herniates through the annulus portion and typically compresses adjacent nerves.

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