Card Set Information
Terms and info for Choral Lit.
What determines "genre"?
Where does the term "genre" come from?
Comes from French word meaning "family" or "kind".
List some Characterics to Look For when Analyzing Music
What is Monophonic?
One voice only
What is Polyphonic?
More than one voice
What is Homophonic?
Moving in a chordal style
What is Contrapuntal?
Voices moving against each other independently
How does the Motet relate to music history?
The most important form of early polyphonic music, especially during the Middle Ages and Renaissane.
Composers of every age have contributed to this genre.
Unaccompanied choral composition based upon a Latin text and designed to be performed in the Roman Catholic service, most often at the
Medieval Motet Year
Flemish Motet Years
Baroque Motet Years
Where does the Motet come from?
From the French word
, meaning "word."
A mots was added to the duplum (upper voice) of the clausulae of a chant
A duplum text was called the motetus (Hence, getting the name motet)
What is the Duplum?
The added voice above the chant melody
What are Clausula?
Sections of organa that occur between major cadential points in the duplum
Give some characteristics of 13th Century Motet
Grew in length, elaboration, and rhythmic variety
Was used as the cantus firmus
in the tenor voice
as a unifying device
What does Polytextual mean?
More than one text
What is Isorhythm?
A single rhythmic phrase pattern repeated, usually in the tenor, throughout the composition
Color = repeated notes
Talea = repeated rhythms
What is the Cantus Firmus?
A pre-existing melody forming the basis of a polyphonic composition
What type of motet was developed during the Late 13th Century Motet?
Know as the
after Franco of Cologne (active from 1250-1280)
List some characteristics of the 14th Century Motet.
Composers composed more secular than sacred music
Use of compositional devices
Visual appearance of manuscripts often matched the creativity of the music
Messe de Notre Dame
Most famous musical composition during the 14th c.
Expanded the texture to four voices
First four-part setting of a Mass
Important 14th Century Composers
Guillaume Machaut (c 1300-1377)
Francesco Landini (c 1325-1397) - no sacred music
List some characteristics of Early 15th Century Motet
Allowed for more compositional experimentation and novel methods were employed
Abandoned polytextuality, using Latin in all voices
in favor of free composition
Known as the
15th Century Composers
Guillaume Dufay (1400-1475)
John Dunstable (1385-1453)
Quam pulchra es
By John Dunstable
Three voices of similar character and nearly equal importance
Move with same rhythmic pulse (not completely identical, but somewhat homophonic)
Text syllables occur at the same time, making it clear
Form determined by text
Use of the interval of the third in top voice - outlining triad
Use of cross-relationships
What is Fauxbourdon?
False bass - same triads in 2nd inversion
What is a Cross-Relation?
Major/minor thirds sung together or in succession in different voices
List characteristics of the Flemish Motet.
Became the genre of choice, because it allowed composers to express their greatest creativity
Development of increased use of imitation as a compositional device
Beginning of contrapuntal texture
Immediate forerunner of the "High Renaissance Style"
Points of imitation
Alternation of contrapuntal and homophonic textures
4-6 voices is most common
Flemish Motet Composers
Josquin des Prez (c.1440-1521)
Jacob Obrecht (c.1450-?)
Roman School Composers
English School Composers
English School Characteristics
Likes to add in the Major 3rd - full triadic development
More homophonic than contrapuntal
How the beat is divided (duple or triple)
symbols for common, cut & triple time
Changing division of the beat
History of the English Church
Religion based on rulers
Religious reforms primary result of political differences
Henry VII excommunicated from Roman church and sets himself as head of the Church of Enland
16th Century Protestant Leaders
Martin Luther - Lutheran Germany
Ulrich Zwingli - Swiss Reformist (Germany)
Jean Calvin - Swiss Reformist (France)
16th Centry Monarchs (Tudors)
Henry VIII (1509-1547) - Protestant
Edward VI (1547-1552) - Protestant
Mary Queen of Scots (1552-1557) - Catholic
Elizabeth I (1558-1603) - Protestant
English Church Services vs. Catholic
Mass now becomes the
with Holy Communion
Canonical Hours (
evolve to Morning & Evening Prayer
Book of Common Prayer
becomes compulsory for worship format under the Act of Uniformity under King Edward
What makes English Anthems different from Latin Motets?
Text: English rather than Latin
What is a Full Anthem?
Choir sings throughout
What is a Verse Anthem?
Includes soloists and some instrumental accompaniment
What changes were made as a result of the revolt against the Catholic church that created the English Anthem?
Motet style with English texts
Re-writing Latin texts of existing motets into English
Developing more syllabic compositional style (may be distinguished as English)
What was Stained Glass used for in churches?
Used to teach the Bible
What movement did the Chorale come from?
Most important form that came out of the Lutheran movement
Named for the Tudor leaders
What is the Vesper Service?
Evening prayer within the English church
What is significant about Venice?
17th century musical center
Renaissance style (Palestrina)
Encouraged more freedom from the rigorous limitations of dissonances and counterpoint characteristic of the prima pratica.
What is an
Forerunner of prelude
Gets choir ready
Can be based on tune or freely improvised
Name 3 Centers of Learning
German composers visit these - return to country with new musical ideas
What is the Chorale form?
Bar form (AAB)
A = Stollen
B = Abgesang (longer than stollen)
Why did hymns begin being used in church services?
Allowed people to be active in worship
Brought new dimension to worship
List ways a Hymn Tune can be Varied.
- Melody instrument (eg. violin)
"Overly ornate or gaudy"
To spin out (phrases, etc.)
Age of Reason
What religion was prevelent in Northern Germany?
What religion was prevelent in Southern Germany?
Characteristics of the Romantic Period
Richer, darker, thicker
Characteristics of Romantic Harmonies
Functional harmony destroyed - Tristan chord
F * B * D# * G#
Augmented 4th, 6th, and 9th above a root
Where did the Oxford Movement take place, and what was it?
Church of England
Return to pageantry, beauty and art of worship