the largest and uppermost portion of the brain; divided in to 2 hemispheres, each divided into lobes
the cerebral cortex is the site for conscious thought, voluntary action, reasoning, and abstract mental functions(mathematics)
between the cerebrum and the brain stem; contains the thalamus and hypothalamus.
The thalamus sorts and redirects sensory input.
The hypothalamus maintains homeostasis, controls autonomic nervous system and pituitary gland.
anterior region below the cerebrum.
Connects the cerebrum and diencephalon with the spinal cord.
location: below the center of the cerebrum.
function: has reflex centers concerned with vision and hearing.
connects cerebrum with lower portions of the brain
location: anterior to the cerebellum and inferior to the midbrain.
function: helps to regulate voluntary respiration
location: between the pons and the spinal cord.
function: has centers for control of vital functions, such as respiration and heart beat.
also controls emotions and agression
location: below the posterior portion of the cerebrum.
function: coordinates voluntary muscles, maintains balance and muscle tone.
name the three meninges.
dura mater- dense hard outer hard layer
arachnoid - middle layer
pia mater - inner most layer, contains blood vessels.
and where is it located?
forms the csf
It is located in the third ventricle
name the four visible lobes for each brain hemisphere
frontal, parietal, temporal, and occipital
the bridge between the 2 hemispheres that permits impulses to cross from one side to the other
function of the frontal lobe?
it is the primary motor area which provides conscious control of skeletal muscles.
(also contains broca area)
function of the parietal lobes?
It is the primary sensory area where impulses from the skin, such as touch, pain, and temperature, are interpreted. Estimation of distances, sizes, and shapes also takes place here.
Function of the Temporal lobe?
It conatins the auditory area for receiving and interpreting impulses from the ear. The olfactory area is also located here.
Function of the Occipital lobe?
The visual area of this lobe contains the visual receiving area and the visual association area for interpreting impulses from the eye. Here visual images of language are received. The ability to read with understanding developes in this area.
the fifth lobe deep in each hemisphere, it has no known functions.
2 layers of dense connective tissue; the outer layer is next to lining of the crainial bones and the inner layer adheres to the arachnoid
function: protection and blood drainage
the middle layer, it is connective tissue with deep web-like extensions; csf circulates in this layer
attached to the brain itself and is anchored there by astrocytes. It is delicate connective tissue that holds blood vessels to supply nutrients and oxygen to the brain and spinal cord
cerebospinal fluid; it is a clear liquid that circulates in and around the brain and spinal cord.
function: physical protection as a cushion
chemical protection by maintaining stable electrolytes and nutrients
it is semi-permeable and helps to maintain a stable environment for nuerons of the CNS.
It allows some substances to cross while blocking others.
allowed: glucose, amino acids, and some electrolytes
blocked: hormones, drugs, nuerotransmitters
can be an obtacle to delivery of some drugs
l-dopa will pass the b/b barrier(Parkinson's)
what function lies in the frontal lobe?
Primary motor area, involved in control of skeletal muscles.
It also contains areas involved in speech.
what function lies in the parietal lobe?
The primary sensory area for impulses from the skin such as: touch, pain, and temperature
what function lies in the temporal lobe?
It contains auditory and olfactory areas that are responsible for hearing and smelling.
what function lies in the occipital lobe?
The visual receiving and visual association areas involved in vision.(signals come from the retina of the eye)
What would damage to the Wernicke area cause to a client?
It could cause someone to have difficulty in understanding speech.
What would damage to the Broca area cause for a client?
It could cause someone to have difficulty producing speech (known as motor aphasia).
regulating the ANS
control of pituitary gland
control of some behaviors (thirst, appetite)
control of some emotions (fear pleasure aggression
secretion of hormones
carries smell impulses to the brain
carries visual impulses to the brain
controls contraction of eye muscles
supplies one eyeball muscles
carries sensory impulses from the eye,upper jaw, and lower jaw
controls on eye muscle
controls muscles for facial expressions
carries sensation of taste to the anterior 2/3's of the tongue
stimulates small salivary glands and lacrimal glands
carries sensory impulses for hearing and for equilibrium from the inner ear
carries sensory impulses from the tongue and pharynx and taste from the posterior 1/3 of tongue
control swallowing muscles
supplies most of the organs in the thoracic and abdominal cavity
carries motor impulses to the larynx and pharynx
controls muscles in the neck and larynx
controls muscles of the tongue
severe spasmodic pain affecting the fifth crainial nerve