a & p chpt 10

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rwhitley59
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39841
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a & p chpt 10
Updated:
2010-10-06 22:40:37
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human body health disease
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vocabulary and main topics
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  1. cerebrum
    • the largest and uppermost portion of the brain; divided in to 2 hemispheres, each divided into lobes
    • the cerebral cortex is the site for conscious thought, voluntary action, reasoning, and abstract mental functions(mathematics)
  2. diencephalon
    between the cerebrum and the brain stem; contains the thalamus and hypothalamus.

    The thalamus sorts and redirects sensory input.

    The hypothalamus maintains homeostasis, controls autonomic nervous system and pituitary gland.
  3. brain stem
    anterior region below the cerebrum.

    Connects the cerebrum and diencephalon with the spinal cord.
  4. midbrain
    • location: below the center of the cerebrum.
    • function: has reflex centers concerned with vision and hearing.
    • connects cerebrum with lower portions of the brain
  5. pons
    • location: anterior to the cerebellum and inferior to the midbrain.
    • function: helps to regulate voluntary respiration
  6. medulla oblongata
    • location: between the pons and the spinal cord.
    • function: has centers for control of vital functions, such as respiration and heart beat.
    • also controls emotions and agression
  7. cerebellum
    • location: below the posterior portion of the cerebrum.
    • function: coordinates voluntary muscles, maintains balance and muscle tone.
  8. name the three meninges.
    • dura mater- dense hard outer hard layer
    • arachnoid - middle layer
    • pia mater - inner most layer, contains blood vessels.
  9. choroid plexus
    and where is it located?
    • forms the csf
    • It is located in the third ventricle
  10. name the four visible lobes for each brain hemisphere
    frontal, parietal, temporal, and occipital
  11. corpus callosum
    the bridge between the 2 hemispheres that permits impulses to cross from one side to the other
  12. function of the frontal lobe?
    • it is the primary motor area which provides conscious control of skeletal muscles.
    • (also contains broca area)
  13. function of the parietal lobes?
    It is the primary sensory area where impulses from the skin, such as touch, pain, and temperature, are interpreted. Estimation of distances, sizes, and shapes also takes place here.
  14. Function of the Temporal lobe?
    It conatins the auditory area for receiving and interpreting impulses from the ear. The olfactory area is also located here.
  15. Function of the Occipital lobe?
    The visual area of this lobe contains the visual receiving area and the visual association area for interpreting impulses from the eye. Here visual images of language are received. The ability to read with understanding developes in this area.
  16. Insula
    the fifth lobe deep in each hemisphere, it has no known functions.
  17. dura mater
    • 2 layers of dense connective tissue; the outer layer is next to lining of the crainial bones and the inner layer adheres to the arachnoid
    • function: protection and blood drainage
  18. arachnoid
    the middle layer, it is connective tissue with deep web-like extensions; csf circulates in this layer
  19. pia mater
    attached to the brain itself and is anchored there by astrocytes. It is delicate connective tissue that holds blood vessels to supply nutrients and oxygen to the brain and spinal cord
  20. CSF
    • cerebospinal fluid; it is a clear liquid that circulates in and around the brain and spinal cord.
    • function: physical protection as a cushion
    • chemical protection by maintaining stable electrolytes and nutrients
    • nutrient delivery
    • waste removal
  21. blood-brain barrier
    • it is semi-permeable and helps to maintain a stable environment for nuerons of the CNS.
    • It allows some substances to cross while blocking others.
    • allowed: glucose, amino acids, and some electrolytes
    • blocked: hormones, drugs, nuerotransmitters
    • can be an obtacle to delivery of some drugs
    • l-dopa will pass the b/b barrier(Parkinson's)
  22. what function lies in the frontal lobe?
    • Primary motor area, involved in control of skeletal muscles.
    • It also contains areas involved in speech.
  23. what function lies in the parietal lobe?
    The primary sensory area for impulses from the skin such as: touch, pain, and temperature
  24. what function lies in the temporal lobe?
    It contains auditory and olfactory areas that are responsible for hearing and smelling.
  25. what function lies in the occipital lobe?
    The visual receiving and visual association areas involved in vision.(signals come from the retina of the eye)
  26. What would damage to the Wernicke area cause to a client?
    It could cause someone to have difficulty in understanding speech.
  27. What would damage to the Broca area cause for a client?
    It could cause someone to have difficulty producing speech (known as motor aphasia).
  28. Hypothalmic functions
    • regulating the ANS
    • control of pituitary gland
    • control of some behaviors (thirst, appetite)
    • control of some emotions (fear pleasure aggression
    • body temperature
    • secretion of hormones
  29. o
    o
    o
    t
    t
    a
    f
    v
    g
    v
    a
    h
    • olfactory
    • optic
    • occulomotor
    • trochlear
    • trigeminal
    • abducens
    • facial
    • vestibulocochlear
    • glossopharyngeal
    • vagus
    • accessory
    • hypoglossal
  30. s
    s
    m
    m
    b
    m
    b
    s
    b
    b
    m
    m
    • I SENSORY
    • II SENSORY
    • III MOTOR
    • IV MOTOR
    • V BOTH
    • VI MOTOR
    • VII BOTH
    • VIII SENSORY
    • IX BOTH
    • X BOTH
    • XI MOTOR
    • XII MOTOR
  31. olfactory nerve
    carries smell impulses to the brain
  32. optic nerve
    carries visual impulses to the brain
  33. occulomotor
    controls contraction of eye muscles
  34. trochlear
    supplies one eyeball muscles
  35. trigeminal
    carries sensory impulses from the eye,upper jaw, and lower jaw
  36. abducens
    controls on eye muscle
  37. facial
    • controls muscles for facial expressions
    • carries sensation of taste to the anterior 2/3's of the tongue
    • stimulates small salivary glands and lacrimal glands
  38. vestibulocochlear
    carries sensory impulses for hearing and for equilibrium from the inner ear
  39. glossopharyngeal
    • carries sensory impulses from the tongue and pharynx and taste from the posterior 1/3 of tongue
    • control swallowing muscles
  40. vagus
    • supplies most of the organs in the thoracic and abdominal cavity
    • carries motor impulses to the larynx and pharynx
  41. accessory
    controls muscles in the neck and larynx
  42. hypoglossal
    controls muscles of the tongue
  43. nueralglia
    severe spasmodic pain affecting the fifth crainial nerve

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