UTLEV2.TXT

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UTLEV2.TXT
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  1. @ Generally, the best ultrasonic testing method for detecting
    • discontinuities oriented along the fusion zone in a welded plate
    • is:
    • \d
    • |A. An angle-beam contact method using surface waves.
    • |B. A contact test using a straight longitudinal wave.
    • |C. An immersion test using surface waves.
    • |D. An angle-beam method using shear waves.
    • ^A. Sorry! The surface waves do not propagate through the
    • thickness of a thick plate.
    • ^B. No, a straight zero degree test is not the best approach.
    • ^C. Incorrect, surface waves do not propagate in immersion mode.
    • ^D. You got it!
  2. @ An ultrasonic testing instrument that displays pulses
    • representing the magnitude of reflected ultrasound as a function
    • of time or depth of metal is said to contain:
    • \b
    • |A. A continuous wave display.
    • |B. An A-scan presentation.
    • |C. A B-scan presentation.
    • |D. A C-scan presentation.
    • ^A. Sorry, you are wrong.
    • ^B. You are correct.
    • ^C. No, a B-scan presents a cross-sectional view.
    • ^D. Sorry! The C-scan presents a plan view.
  3. @ At a water-to-steel interface the angle of incidence in water
    • is 7 degrees. The principal mode of vibration that exists in the
    • steel is:
    • \c
    • |A. Longitudinal
    • |B. Shear
    • |C. Both A and B
    • |D. Surface
    • ^A. Yes, but there is another type of wave too. Apply Snell's
    • Law.
    • ^B. Yes, but there is another type of wave too. Apply Snell's
    • Law.
    • ^C. You got it!
    • ^D. Incorrect, apply Snell's law.
  4. @ In a liquid medium, the only mode of vibration that exists is:
    • \a
    • |A. Longitudinal
    • |B. Shear
    • |C. Both A and B
    • |D. Surface
    • ^A. You are correct.
    • ^B. No, this mode does not exist in liquids.
    • ^C. No, only one of the above exists in liquids.
    • ^D. Sorry! Surface waves do not travel through the liquids.
  5. @ In an ultrasonic instrument, the number of pulses produced by an instrument in a given period of time is known as the:

    |A. Pulse length of the instrument.|
    B. Pulse recovery time.|
    C. Frequency.|
    D. Pulse repetition rate.
    • \ d
    • ^A. No. Look at the units.
    • ^B. No. Look at the units.
    • ^C. Sorry! Frequency is related to the transducer.
    • ^D. You are correct.
  6. @ In a basic pulse-echo ultrasonic instrument, the component that coordinates the action and timing of other components iscalled a:

    |A. Display unit or CRT.|
    B. Receiver.|
    C. Marker circuit or range marker circuit.|
    D. Synchronizer, clock, or timer.
    • \d
    • ^A. Sorry! Information is displayed on CRT.
    • ^B. Sorry! Receiver amplifies a signal.
    • ^C. Sorry! Try again.
    • ^D. Excellent!
  7. @ In a basic pulse-echo ultrasonic instrument, the component that produces the voltage that activates the search unit is called:

    A. An amplifier|
    B. A receiver|
    C. Pulser|
    D. A synchronizer
    \c

    • ^A. Sorry! An amplifier amplifies a signal.
    • ^B. Sorry! An amplifier amplifies a signal.
    • ^C. You are absolutely correct.
    • ^D. Sorry! Synchronizer coordinates the action and timing of
    • components.
  8. @ In a basic-pulse-echo ultrasonic instrument, the voltage producing component which activates the search unit is called:

    A. Sweep circuit|
    B. Receiver|
    C. Pulser|
    D. Synchronizer
  9. \a
    • ^A. Excellent
    • ^B. Sorry! Receiver amplifies the signal.
    • ^C. Sorry! Pulser produces voltage that activates the search
    • unit.
    • ^D. Sorry! Synchronizer coordinates the action and timing of
    • components.
  10. @ In a basic pulse-echo ultrasonic instrument, the component that produces visible signals on the CRT which are used to measuredistance is called a:

    A. Sweep circuit|
    B. Marker circuit|
    C. Receiver circuit|
    D. Synchronizer
    • \b
    • ^A. Sorry! Try again.
    • ^B. You've got it.
    • ^C. Sorry! Receiver amplifies the signal.
    • ^D. Sorry! The synchronizer coordinates action and timing.
  11. @ Most basic pulse-echo ultrasonic instruments use:
    • \b
    • |A. Automatic read-out equipment.
    • |B. An A-scan presentation.
    • |C. A B-scan presentation.
    • |D. A C-scan presentation.
    • ^A. No, most equipment have signal amplitude and time display.
    • ^B. You are correct.
    • ^C. No, most equipment have signal amplitude and time dispplay.
    • ^D. No, most equipment have signal amplitude and time display.
  12. @ The cathode ray tube screen will display a plan view of the part outline and defects when using:

    |A. Automatic read-out equipment.|
    B. An A-scan presentation.|
    C. A B-scan presentation.|
    D. A C-scan presentation.
    • \d
    • ^A. Incorrect. Try harder.
    • ^B. Sorry! A-scan shows signal amplitude and time display.
    • ^C. No, a B-scan shows a cross sectional view.
    • ^D. You are right.
  13. @ The incident angles at which 90 degrees refraction of longitudinal and shear waves occurs are called:
    A. The normal angles of incidence.|
    B. The critical angles.|
    C. The angles of maximum reflection.|
    D. None of the above
  14. \b
    • |.
    • ^A. No. The key word is "90 degrees refraction."
    • ^B. You are correct.
    • ^C. No. The key words are "90 degrees refraction."
    • ^D. No. There is a correct answer.
  15. @ Compression waves whose particle displacement is parallel to the direction of propagation are called:
    |A. Longitudinal waves|
    B. Shear waves|
    C. Lamb waves|
    D. Rayleigh waves
    • \a
    • ^A. You are correct.
    • ^B. Sorry! In this case, the particle displacement is
    • perpendicular.
    • ^C. No, in this case, particle displacement is complex.
    • ^D. No, in this case, particle displacement is elliptical.
  16. @ Which of the following modes of vibration are quickly damped out when testing by the immersion method?
    |A. Longitudinal waves|
    B. Shear waves|
    C. Transverse waves|
    D. Surface waves
    • \d
    • ^A. No. Longitudinal waves travel through water.
    • ^B. No. Shear waves travel through metal even though it is
    • immersed.
    • ^C. No. Transverse waves travel through metal even though it is
    • immersed.
    • ^D. You are correct.
  17. @ The motion of particles in a shear wave is:
    |A. Parallel to the direction of propagation of the ultrasonicbeam.|
    B. Transverse to the direction of beam propagation.|
    C. Limited to the material surface and elliptical in motion.|
    D. Polarized in a plane at 45 degrees to the direction of beampropagation.
    • \b
    • ^A. No, this defines the longitudinal waves.
    • ^B. You are correct.
    • ^C. No, this defines the surface waves.
    • ^D. Sorry! Please try again.
  18. @ In contact testing, shear waves can be induced in the test material by:
    A. Placing a X-cut crystal directly on the surface of thematerials and coupling through a film of oil.|
    B. Using two transducers on opposite sides of the test specimen.|
    C. Placing a spherical acoustic lens on the face of thetransducer|
    D. Using a transducer mounted on a plastic wedge so that sound
    • \d
    • |enters the part at an angle.
    • ^A. No, this will generate longitudinal waves.
    • ^B. No. This is through transmission testing.
    • ^C. No, this will simply focus sound beam.
    • ^D. You are correct.
  19. @ As frequency increases in ultrasonic testing, the angle of crystal:
    A. Decreases.|
    B. Remains unchanged.|
    C. Increases.|
    D. Varies uniformly through each wavelength.
    • beam divergence of a given diameter \a
    • |^A. You are correct.
    • ^B. Sorry! Beam divergence is a function of wave length divided
    • by transducer diameter.
    • ^C. Sorry! Beam divergence is a function of wave length divided
    • by transducer diameter.
    • ^D. Sorry! Beam divergence is a function of wave length divided
    • by transducer diameter.
  20. @ Which of the following is not an advantage of contact ultrasonic search units(probes) adapted with lucite shoes?
    |A. Eliminates most of the crystal wear.|
    B. Permits adaptation to curved surfaces.|
    C. Decreases sensitivity.|
    D. Allows ultrasound to enter a part's
    • \c
    • surface at oblique angles.
    • ^A. No, this is an advantage.
    • ^B. No, this is an advantage.
    • ^C. You are correct.
    • ^D. No, this is an advantage.
  21. @ In which medium listed below would the velocity of sound be lowest?
    |A. Air|
    B. Water|
    C. Aluminum|
    D. Stainless steel
    • \a
    • ^A. You are correct.
    • ^B. Sorry! Velocity is a function of modulus and density. Liquids
    • generally have higher velocity than gases.
    • ^C. Sorry! Velocity is a function of modulus and density.
    • Solids, generally have higher velocity than liquids and gases.
    • ^D. Sorry! Velocity is a function of modulus and density.
    • Solids, generally have higher velocity than liquids and gases.
  22. @ A longitudinal ultrasonic wave is transmitted from water into steel at an angle of 5 degrees from the normal. In such a case therefracted angle of the transverse wave is:
    |A. Less than the refracted angle of the longitudinal wave.|
    B. Equal to the refracted angle of the longitudinal wave.|
    C. Greater than the refracted angle of the longitudinal wave.|
    D. Not present at all.
    • \a
    • ^A. You are right on target.
    • ^B. No, apply Snell's law.
    • ^C. No, think about Snell's law.
    • ^D. No, you are incorrect.
  23. @ The velocity of longitudinal waves will be highest in:
    • \c
    • |A. Water
    • |B. Air
    • |C. Aluminum
    • |D. Stainless steel
    • ^A. Incorrect, generally have a higher velocity than the liquids.
    • ^B. Incorrect, air has the lowest velocity.
    • ^C. You got it.
    • ^D. You are close but not quite right.
  24. @ The acoustic impedance is:
    A. Used to calculate the angle of reflection|
    B. The product of the density of the material and thevelocity of sound in the material.|
    C. Found by Snell's law|
    D. Used to determine resonance values^
    • \ b|
    • A. Sorry! Acoustic impedance is used for calculatingtransmission and reflection of ultrasound.^
    • B. You are right on target.^
    • C. Sorry! Acoustic impedance is used for calculatingtransmission and reflection of ultrasound.^
    • D. Sorry! Acoustic impedance is used for calculatingtransmission and reflection of ultrasound.
  25. @ In steel, the velocity of sound is greatest in which of the following modes of vibration?
    A. Longitudinal|
    B. Shear|
    C. Surface waves.|
    D. Sound velocity is identical in all modes, in a givenmaterial.
    • \ a
    • | ^ A. You are right on target.
    • ^ B. No, shear waves travel half as fast as longitudinal waves.
    • ^ C. No, surface waves are slower than shear waves.
    • ^ D. Sorry! Velocities are significantly different for
    • different wave modes.
  26. @ Thin sheet may be inspected with the ultrasonic wave directed normal to the surface by observing:
    | A. The amplitude of the front surface reflection.|
    B. The multiple reflection pattern.|
    C. All front surface reflections|
    D. None of the above.
    • \ b
    • ^ A. No, front surface signal will have a considerable dead
    • zone.
    • ^ B. Outstanding
    • ^ C. Sorry! Try again.
    • ^ D. No, there is a correct answer.
  27. @ A diagram in which the entire circuit stage or sections are shown by geometric figures and the path of the signal or energy bylines and/or arrows is called a:
    | A. Schematic diagram|
    B. Blueprint|
    C. Block diagram|
    D. None of the above
    • \ c
    • ^ A. No, schematic diagrams show electrical circuits.
    • ^ B. Sorry! But you are real close. Try again.
    • ^ C. You've got it.
    • ^ D. No, there is a correct answer.
  28. @ Of the piezoelectric materials listed below, the mostefficient sound transmitter is:
    A. Lithium sulfate|
    B. Quartz|
    C. Barium titanate|
    D. Silver oxide^
    • \ c|
    • A. No, this is the best receiver.^
    • B. Sorry! Try again.^
    • C. You got it.^
    • D. Incorrect, silver oxide is not a piezoelectric material.
  29. ^ A. Yes, but you are only partially correct.
    • ^ B. Yes, but you are only partially correct.
    • ^ C. Yes, but you are only partially correct.
    • ^ D. You got it
  30. @ Of thepiezoelectric materials listed below, the most efficient sound receiver is:
    | A. Lithium sulfate|
    B. Quartz|
    C. Barium titanate|
    D. Silver oxide.
    • \ a
    • ^ A. You are correct.
    • ^ B. Sorry! Please try again.
    • ^ C. No, this is the best transmitter.
    • ^ D. Incorrect, silver oxide is not a piezoelectric material.
  31. @ The wavelength of an ultrasonic wave is: A. directly proportional to velocity and frequency.|
    B. directly proportional to velocity and inverselyproportional to frequency.|
    C. inversely proportional to velocity and directlyproportional to frequency.| D. equal to the product of the velocity and frequency.
    • \ b|
    • .^ A. Incorrect since velocity=frequency x wavelength.^
    • B. You got it.^
    • C. No, apply the formula velocity=frequency x wavelength again.^
    • D. No, apply the formula velocity=frequency x wavelength
  32. @ Beam divergence is a function of the dimensions of the crystaland the wavelength of the beam transmitted through a medium, and it:A. increases if the frequency or crystal diameter isdecreased.|
    B. decreases if the frequency or crystal diameter isdecreased.|
    C. increases if the frequency is increased and crystaldiameter decreased.|
    D. decreases if the frequency is increased and crystaldiameter is decreased
    • \ a|
    • .^ A. You got it.^
    • B. Sorry! Alpha is a function of velocity/(diameter*frequency).^
    • C. Sorry! Alpha is a function of velocity/(diameter*frequency).^
    • D. Sorry! Alpha is a function of velocity/(diameter*frequency).
  33. @ The most commonly used method of producing shear waves in a test part when inspecting by the immersion method is:
    A. By transmitting longitudinal waves into a part in adirection perpendicular to its front surface.|
    B. By using two crystals vibrating at different frequencies.|
    C. By using a Y-cut quartz crystal.|
    D. By angulating the search tube to the proper angle.
    • \ d
    • |^ A. No, the transducer is positioned at an angle.
    • ^ B. Sorry, you are wrong.
    • ^ C. Sorry! This is one way, but not the most common way.
    • ^ D. You are correct.
  34. @ In general, which waves will travel around gradual curves withlittle or no reflection from the curve?
    | A. Transverse waves.|
    B. Surface waves.|
    C. Shear waves.|
    D. Longitudinal waves.
    • \ b
    • ^ A. No, transverse waves are reflected from curved surface.
    • ^ B. Excellent
    • ^ C. No, shear waves are reflected from curved surface.
    • ^ D. No, longitudinal waves are reflected from curved surfaces.
  35. @ When using two separate search units (one a transmitter, theother a receiver), the most efficient combination would be:
    A. A quartz transmitter and a barium titanate receiver.|
    B. A barium titanate transmitter and a lithium sulfatereceiver.|
    C. A lithium sulfate transmitter and a barium titanatereceiver.|
    D. A barium titanate transmitter and a quartz receiver
    • \ b|
    • .^ A. No, quartz is not a very good transmitter or receiver.^
    • B. You are correct.^
    • C. Sorry! Lithium sulfate is a good receiver.^
    • D. No, quartz is not a very good transmitter or receiver.
  36. @ To evaluate and accurately locate discontinuities afters canning a part with a paintbrush transducer, it is generallynecessary to use a:
    A. Search unit with a smaller crystal.| B. Scrubber.|
    C. Grid map.|
    D. Crystal collimator
    • \ a
    • |.
    • ^ A. You are correct.
    • ^ B. Sorry! This choice is irrelevant.
    • ^ C. Sorry! This choice is irrelevant.
    • ^ D. Sorry! This choice is irrelevant.
    • @ As the impedance ratio of two dissimilar materials increases,
    • the percentage of sound coupled through an interface of such materials:
    • \ a
    • | A. Decreases.
    • | B. Increases.
    • | C. Is not changed.
    • | D. May increase or decrease.
    • ^ A. Super
    • ^ B. No. Apply the formula for reflection and transmission
    • factors.
    • ^ C. No, higher the impedance mismatch, the more difficult the
    • transmission.
    • ^ D. No, higher the impedance mismatch, the more difficult the
    • transmission.
    • @ Low frequency sound waves are not generally used to test thin
    • materials because of:
    • \ c
    • | A. The rapid attenuation of low frequency sound.
    • | B. Incompatible wavelengths.
    • | C. Poor near-surface resolution.
    • | D. None of the above will actually limit such a test.
    • ^ A. Incorrect. What happens to the resolution
    • ^ B. Incorrect. What happens to the resolution
    • ^ C. You are correct.
    • ^ D. Incorrect. What happens to the resolution
  37. | B. A collimator.
    • | C. An angle plane angulator.
    • | D. A jet-stream unit.
    • ^ A. Sorry! This answer is incorrect.
    • ^ B. You are correct.
    • ^ C. Sorry! This answer is incorrect.
    • ^ D. Sorry! This answer is incorrect.
    • @ The maximum scanning speed possible is primarily determined
    • by:
    • \ c
    • | A. The frequency of the searchunit.
    • | B. Viscous drag problems.
    • | C. The pulse repetition rate of the test instrument.
    • | D. The persistency of the CRT screen.
    • ^ A. No, there is not relation between frequency and scanning
    • speed.
    • ^ B. Sorry! This answer is incorrect.
    • ^ C. You are correct.
    • ^ D. Sorry! This answer is incorrect.
    • @ Surface waves are reduced to an energy level of approximately
    • 1/25 of the original power at a depth of:
    • \ c
  38. ^ A. Sorry! Surface waves penetrate as much as one wavelength
    • below the surface.
    • ^ B. No, surface waves do not penetrate much below one
    • wavelength.
    • ^ C. Outstanding
    • ^ D. No, surface waves do not penetrate much below one
    • wavelength.
    • @ The ultrasonic test method in which finger damping is most
    • effective in locating a discontinuity is:
    • \ c
    • | A. Shear wave
    • | B. Longitudinal wave
    • | C. Surface wave
    • | D. Compressional wave
    • ^ A. No, all wave modes can be damped with finger. The key
    • words are "most effective."
    • ^ B. No, all wave modes can be damped with finger. The key
    • words are "most effective."
    • ^ C. Absolutely correct.
    • ^ D. No, all wave modes can be damped with finger. The key
    • words are "most effective."
    • @ Lamb waves can be used to detect:
    • \ a
    • | A. Laminar-type defects near the surface of a thin material
    • | B. Lack of fusion in the center of a thick weldment
    • | C. Internal voids in diffusion bonds
    • | D. Thickness changes in heavy plate material
    • ^ A. You've got it.
    • ^ B. No, lamb waves cannot be generated in thick materials.
    • ^ C. No, lamb waves cannot be generated in thick materials.
    • ^ D. No, lamb waves cannot be generated in thick materials.
  39. \ c
    • | A. Defect detection.
    • | B. Sound wave characterization.
    • | C. Thickness measurement of flaw detection in thin materials.
    • | D. Attenuation measurements.
    • ^ A. Incorrect. Delay-tip normally used to avoid dead zone.
    • ^ B. Incorrect. Delay-tip normally used to avoid dead zone.
    • ^ C. Excellent
    • ^ D. Incorrect. Delay-tip normally used to avoid dead zone.
  40. @ Acoustical lenses are commonly used for contour correction.
    • When scanning the inside of a pipe section by the immersion method,
    • which of the following lens types would be used?
    • \ b
    • | A. Focused cup
    • | B. Convex
    • | C. Concave
    • | D. Variable pitch
    • ^ A. No, pipe curvature provides focussing in one plane.
    • ^ B. Super! You are correct.
    • ^ C. Sorry! Please try again.
    • ^ D. Sorry! Please try again.
    • @ When the incident angle is chosen to be between the first and
    • second critical angles, the ultrasonic wave generated within the
    • part will be:
    • \ b
    • | A. Longitudinal
    • | B. Shear
    • | C. Surface
    • | D. Lamb
    • ^ A. No, longitudinal wave does not exist beyond first critical
    • angle.
    • ^ B. You are correct.
    • ^ C. No, surface wave is generated after second critical angle.
    • ^ D. No, lamb wave is generated after second critical angle.
  41. @ The attenuation of energy within a material in the far field of the ultrasonic beam may be expressed as the:
  42. | A. Arithmetic mean
    • | B. Geometrical average
    • | C. Exponential average
    • | D. Exponential decay
    • ^ A. Wrong. It decreases rapidly.
    • ^ B. Wrong. It decreases rapidly.
    • ^ C. Wrong. It decreases rapidly.
    • ^ D. You are correct.
  43. | D. None of the above
    • ^ A. You've got it.
    • ^ B. No. Duration and amplitude are the two dimensions of an
    • ultrasonic signal.
    • ^ C. Sorry! Please try again.
    • ^ D. Sorry! Your choice is incorrect.
  44. @ For aluminum and steel the longitudinal velocity is approximately_________ the shear velocity:

    A. Equal to|
    B. Twice|
    C. One-half of|
    D. Four times^
    • B
    • A. Incorrect, shear wave velocity is much smaller thanlongitudinal wave velocity.^
    • B. You are absolutely correct.^
    • C. Incorrect, shear wave travel slower than longitudinalwaves.^
    • D. Incorrect. You are close.
  45. @ The coated inside surface of the large end of a cathode raytube which becomes luminous when struck by an electron beam is called:

    A. An electron gun|
    B. An electron amplifier|
    C. A CRT screen|
    D. An electron counter^
    \ c|

    • A. No, the key word is "screen."^
    • B. No, the key word is "screen."^
    • C. You are correct.^
    • D. No, the key word is "screen."
  46. @ The phenomenon by which a wave strikes a boundary and changesthe direction of its propagation within the same medium is referredto as:
    A. Divergence|
    B. Impedance|
    C. Angulation|
    D. Reflection^
    • \ d|
    • A. No, divergence is a function of wavelength/transducerdiameter^
    • B. No, impedance=velocity*density^
    • C. Sorry! Please try again.^
    • D. You've got it.
  47. @ The change in direction of an ultrasonic beam when it passesfrom one medium to another whose velocity differs from that ofthe first medium is called:
    A. Refraction|
    B. Rarefaction|
    C. Angulation|
    D. Reflection^
    • \ a|
    • A. You've got it.^
    • B. No, rarefaction is associated with the way longitudinalwave propagates.^
    • C. Sorry! This answer is incorrect.^
    • D. No, reflection occurs within the same medium.
  48. @ Water travel distance for immersion inspections should be:\ a|
    A. Such that the second front reflection does not appearbetween the first front and back reflections.| B. Exactly 3 inches.| C. Less than 3 inches.| D. Always equal to the thickness of the material beinginspected.^ A. You are correct.^ B. No. It depends on material thickness and velocity.^ C. No. It depends on material thickness and velocity.^ D. No, this can cause a confusing screen or presentation.

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