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What is respiration?
Process by which body cell’s supplied with oxygen and CO2 I removed as waste.
What three processes is respiration dependent upon?
Ventilation, gas exchange and perfusion
What is Ventilation?
Mechanical movement of air from the atmosphere into and out of the lungs
What is Gas Exchange?
Exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide to and from the alveoli and blood
What is Perfusion?
Movement of oxygenated blood from lungs to tissues
What can diffusion be impaired by?
- Alveoli collapse
- Fluid, pus or blood
- Damaged or blocked pulmonary vessels
What does adequate oxygenation require?
- Patent airway
- Intact thoracic cavity
- Adequate compliance and recoil
- Intact CNS & respiratory center
What is GERD?
Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease
What is difference between hypoxia and hypoxemia?
Hypoxia is not enough oxygen in tissues and hypoxemia is in the blood
What are signs of hypoxia?
- Tachypnea, tachycardia
- Dyspnea, shallow respirations, retractions, accessory muscle use
- Restlessness, confusion
- Cyanosis (late sign)
- Lethargy, clubbing (chronic)
What is pradypnea, apnea?
What are Kussmaul Respirations?
Deep and rapid, attempt to blow off CO2
What is Cheyne-Strokes Respirations?
Deep to shallow, periods of apnea, seen with CHF and CVA patients
What are Biot’s respirations?
AKA cluster breating, shallow with periods of apnea
What is a partial obstructed airway?
Snoring, stridor, adventitious breath sounds
What is complete obstructed airway?
Extreme inspiratory effort with no chest movement
What are causes of obstructed airway?
Secretions, pus, fluid, tongue, foreign object
What are some causes of respiratory distress?
- Cardiac failure
- Exposure to chemicals
What are rales?
Crackles, wet sounds
What is ronchi?
Coarse rattling sound
What is a V/Q Scan?
Checks to see if ventilation and perfusion are matched
Why is a V/Q scan used?
Looking for pulmonary embolism
Four interventions for improving pulmonary function?
- Maintain patent airway
- Maintain/improve ventilation and oxygenation
- Decrease the work of breathing
- Improve ability to participate in activity
What is included in the order for oxygenating a patient?
Concentration and delivery method
When may a nurse administer O2 without a doctor’s order?
In an emergency
What is magnesium sulfate used for?
Relaxing smooth muscle, dilation of bronchi