Skin, Hair, Nails Assessment
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What is cornification?
Epithelial cells are differentiated between nail, hair and skin
When do eccrine glands mature?
2 months of age
What does eccrine gland secrete?
Dilute Saline solution
What does apocrine gland secrete?
Milky white substance that interacts with surface bateria and produce odor
What do sebaceous glands secrete?
Lipid-rich sebum to keep skin and hair from drying out
What degree of burn has intact dermis and epidermis?
What degree of burn has intact dermis but epidermis is damaged?
What degree of burn has damaged dermis and epidermis and exposed adipose tissue?
When do hair follicles develop?
3 months gestation
What is striae gravidarium?
What is physiologic cause of … in older adults?
When is skin assessment performed?
Throughout the exam
What kinds of subjective data are collected during skin assessment?
- History of skin disorder
- Change in pigmentation
- Change in a mole
- Excess dryness/moisture
- Excess bruising
- Wound healing changes
- Hair loss
- Changes in nails
- Environmental hazards
- Health promotion practices
What is vitiligo?
Absence of melanin pigment in patchy areas
What is turgor?
Elasticity of skin
What signs are you looking for when assessing lesions?
- Palpate lesions
What is annular lesion?
What is a target lesion?
Looks like a target (Lyme disease)
What is confluent?
Hives, coming together
What is discreet?
What is macule?
Flat, nonpalpable – solely color change, less than 1 cm
What is patch?
Macule > 1cm
What is a papule?
Elevated, palpable less than 1 cm
What is a plaque?
Elevated, > 1cm
What is a wheal?
Raised, erythematous, irregular
What is urticaria?
Wheals join to form an extensive reaction
What is a vesicle?
elevated cavity containing clear fluid < 1cm
What is a bulla?
– elevated cavity with clear fluid > 1cm
What is pustule?
Elevated cavity containing pus
What is a cyst?
encapsulated fluid filled cavity in dermis or subcutaneous layer
What is petechiae?
Pinpoint hemorrhage, non-blanchable
What is purpura?
Larger areas of subQ bleeding. They are palpable, not blanchable.
What is ecchymoses?
What is the incidence of basal cell carcinoma?
Which skin cancer is the most prevalent?
Basal cell carcinoma
What are the early signs of melanoma?
- A – asymmetry
- B – border
- C - color
- D - diameter
- E – elevation/enlargement
- 2 or more present need to be referred
What is the difference between friction and shear?
- Friction is on the outside of the skin from movement
- Shear occurs under the skin when skin is pullover bone
What is deep tissue injury?
Purple or maroon localized area of discolored skin or blood filled blister
What is unstageable ulcer?
Full-thickness tissue loss in which base of ulcer is covered with slough
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