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What is pathophysiology? (2)
- Study of how body reacts to specific
- 1. situations
- 2. agents
- which cause a imbalance in homeostasis
What happens when homeostasis is out of balance?
What is homeostasis?
Body's attempt to maintain a healthy balance & proper internal environment.
What is a disease? (3)
- pathological condition of a
- 1. part
- 2. organ
- 3. system
- resulting from various causes
What are the causes of a disease? (3)
- 1. infection
- 2. genetic defect
- 3. environmental stress
Disease is characterized by a identifiable group of? (2)
What are the 3 ways in which S&S are identified? (3)
- 1. microscopic
- 2. whole body
- 3. systemic-feel pain
What is etiology?
cause of a disease; often more than 1
What is an example of etiology?
virus causes the common cold, but a run down immune system makes you more prone to it.
What is a iatrogenic disease? (3)
- A disease due to:
- 1. treatment
- 2. procedure
- 3. error
What are 2 examples of a iatrogenic disease?
- 1. patient develops a pressure ulcer (bedsore)
- 2. artery is accidentally nicked during a surgery
What is an idiopathic disease?
no known cause has been identified
What is an example of an idiopathic disease?
What is pathogenesis?
sequence of events that occur as a disease develops
What is acute?
sudden onset of S&S, usually heals
What is an example of an acute disease?
What is chronic?
gradual onset of S&S, often lasts >6 months or a lifetime
What is an example of a chronic disease?
What is morbidity?
incidence of disease in a population
What does communicable mean?
What does reportable diseases mean?
required by law to notify health dept. (about the disease)
What does mortality mean?
incidence of death in a population
What does epidemic mean?
high morbidity in a population
What does pandemic mean?
world-wide spread of disease
What is a pathogen?
any substance which causes a disease
What is a carrier?
healthy-appearing person who harbors a pathogen in their body
What is a prognosis?
probablity of recovery or other outcomes
What is atrophy?
reduced tissue mass due to decreased cell size
What is an example of atrophy?
shrinkage of muscle not used
What is hypertrophy?
Opposite of atrophy (larger)
What is an example of hypertrophy?
left ventricle hypertrophy
What is dysplasia?
Tissues with various sizes of cells and increased mitosis often premalignant (precancerous)
What does premalignant mean?
What is neoplasm?
New growth of cells causing malignant or benign tumor.
1. What is ischemia? 2.What is hypoxia?
- 1.Deficit of oxygen in cells
- 2. deficit of oxygen in tissues
What is necrosis?
Death or destruction of tissue
What is gangrene?
A necrotic tissue that has been invaded by bacteria (esp. anaerobic)
What is the inflammatory response?
non-specific general body response to a trauma
(Inflamatory Response to trauma) Mast and other cells at the site of injury release what? (4)
- 1. histamine
- 2. prostaglandins
- 3. Seratonin
- 4. Leukotrienes
(inflammation response to a trauma) Pain may be secondary to release of what?
(inflammation response to a trauma)What is "substance P"?
protein stored in spinal cord and skin
(inflammation response to a trauma) What does "Substance P" do? (2)
- 1. Triggers mast cell activity
- 2. Acts as a neurotransimitter for pain impulses
(inflammation response to a trauma) increase what in blood?
what is leukocytosis?
(inflammation response to a trauma) triggers blood?
(inflammation response to a trauma) what is capillary permeability with inflamation?
inflamation causes leakage of fluid from blood into ECF -> swelling, hives, & WBC's congregate at injury to reduce infection
is there increased capillary permability in inflamation?
when should pyrexia be treated?(3)
- when a patient is:
- 1) young
- 2) old
- 3) poor health
what does pyrexia do that is good?
inhibits growth of pathogens
what are the treatments for inflammation?
- 1)asprin (ASA)
- 3)RICE (rest, ice, compresion, elevate.... heat)
- 4) IF SEVERE!! steriods to block immune response ONLY IF NO INFECTION IS PRESENT!!
what are the sideeffects of anti inflamitory treatment?
- 1) GI bleeding/ irritation
- 2) decreased immune response
- 3) constipation
- 4) decreased blood clotting
what are the body responses that increase body temperature? (5)
- 1) shivers(chills)
- 2) vasoconstriction in skin (pallor)
- 3) increased BMR
- 4) increased heart rate
- 5) curl up body
what are the bodies responses that increase heat loss? (4)
- 2) sweating
- 3) lathargy
- 4) extend body
what controls temperature in the brain?
what are pyrogens?
fever producing substances
what is granulation tissue?
shinny red tissue grows after blood clot forms to seal off area and debris is removed ( takes a few days)
what are the steps in wound healing?
- 1) granulation tissue
- 2) new blood vessels grow to injured area
- 3) epithelial cells then grow in from wound edges
- 4) collagen (CT) forms-> scar (no hair, glands, non-functional)
what is keloid?
a hypertrophic scar tissue
what is adhesion?
hypertrophic bands of scar tissue connecting tissues that are not usually supposed to be connected; can occur after surgeries (esp. abdomen)
what are the 2 types of wound healing?
- 1) first intention-no scar forms/ clean surgical inscision
- 2) second intention- obvious scar
what do burns cause?
- 1. severe inflammation
- 2. capillary permaniblity
- 3. edema
- 4. decreased blood volume
- 5. decreased BP->hypovolemic shock, death
Burns cause loss of protein from what? (3)
- 1. blood
- 2. water
- 3. electrolyte imbalances (esp. increased K from lysed cells)
- ->cardiac arrest is possible
What is the main intracellular electrolyte?
Burns have a high death rate due to?
What are the 3 classifications of burns and what they are?
- 1. partial thickness burn (to epidermis only)
- 2. full thickness burn (to subcutanous layer+some muscle)
- 3. deep partial thickness burn (to dermis also)
What is the treatment of burns? (2)
- Skin grafting:
- 1. biosynthetic
- 2. cadaver
What are the 3 stages of disease?
- 1. latent period
- 2. prodromal period
- 3. acute phase
What are 3 characteristics of the latent period?
- 1. "incubation period" is common
- 2. Do not know you are sick
- 3. microscopic level
What is 1 characteristic of the prodromal period?
vague, early symptoms
What are the 3 paths you may take in the acute phase?
- 1. cured
- 2. remission
- 3. Chronic WITH "EXACERBATION":comes again (flare-ups)
What is 2 characteristics of the acute phase?
- 1. S&S appear
- 2. actively ill