Patho Week 2 ch 1 & 2

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ekruge01
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40039
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Patho Week 2 ch 1 & 2
Updated:
2010-10-06 17:53:26
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pathophysiology
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some pathophysiology questions
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  1. What is pathophysiology? (2)
    • Study of how body reacts to specific
    • 1. situations
    • OR
    • 2. agents
    • which cause a imbalance in homeostasis
  2. What happens when homeostasis is out of balance?
    disease
  3. What is homeostasis?
    Body's attempt to maintain a healthy balance & proper internal environment.
  4. What is a disease? (3)
    • pathological condition of a
    • 1. part
    • 2. organ
    • 3. system
    • resulting from various causes
  5. What are the causes of a disease? (3)
    • 1. infection
    • 2. genetic defect
    • 3. environmental stress
  6. Disease is characterized by a identifiable group of? (2)
    • 1. signs
    • 2. symptoms
  7. What are the 3 ways in which S&S are identified? (3)
    • 1. microscopic
    • 2. whole body
    • 3. systemic-feel pain
  8. What is etiology?
    cause of a disease; often more than 1
  9. What is an example of etiology?
    virus causes the common cold, but a run down immune system makes you more prone to it.
  10. What is a iatrogenic disease? (3)
    • A disease due to:
    • 1. treatment
    • 2. procedure
    • 3. error
  11. What are 2 examples of a iatrogenic disease?
    • 1. patient develops a pressure ulcer (bedsore)
    • 2. artery is accidentally nicked during a surgery
  12. What is an idiopathic disease?
    no known cause has been identified
  13. What is an example of an idiopathic disease?
    "Essential Hypertension"
  14. What is pathogenesis?
    sequence of events that occur as a disease develops
  15. What is acute?
    sudden onset of S&S, usually heals
  16. What is an example of an acute disease?
    flu
  17. What is chronic?
    gradual onset of S&S, often lasts >6 months or a lifetime
  18. What is an example of a chronic disease?
    arthiritis
  19. What is morbidity?
    incidence of disease in a population
  20. What does communicable mean?
    infectious disease
  21. What does reportable diseases mean?
    required by law to notify health dept. (about the disease)
  22. What does mortality mean?
    incidence of death in a population
  23. What does epidemic mean?
    high morbidity in a population
  24. What does pandemic mean?
    world-wide spread of disease
  25. What is a pathogen?
    any substance which causes a disease
  26. What is a carrier?
    healthy-appearing person who harbors a pathogen in their body
  27. What is a prognosis?
    probablity of recovery or other outcomes
  28. What is atrophy?
    reduced tissue mass due to decreased cell size
  29. What is an example of atrophy?
    shrinkage of muscle not used
  30. What is hypertrophy?
    Opposite of atrophy (larger)
  31. What is an example of hypertrophy?
    left ventricle hypertrophy
  32. What is dysplasia?
    Tissues with various sizes of cells and increased mitosis often premalignant (precancerous)
  33. What does premalignant mean?
    precancerous
  34. What is neoplasm?
    New growth of cells causing malignant or benign tumor.
  35. 1. What is ischemia? 2.What is hypoxia?
    • 1.Deficit of oxygen in cells
    • 2. deficit of oxygen in tissues
  36. What is necrosis?
    Death or destruction of tissue
  37. What is gangrene?
    A necrotic tissue that has been invaded by bacteria (esp. anaerobic)
  38. What is the inflammatory response?
    non-specific general body response to a trauma
  39. (Inflamatory Response to trauma) Mast and other cells at the site of injury release what? (4)
    • 1. histamine
    • 2. prostaglandins
    • 3. Seratonin
    • 4. Leukotrienes
  40. (inflammation response to a trauma) Pain may be secondary to release of what?
    "Substance P"
  41. (inflammation response to a trauma)What is "substance P"?
    protein stored in spinal cord and skin
  42. (inflammation response to a trauma) What does "Substance P" do? (2)
    • 1. Triggers mast cell activity
    • 2. Acts as a neurotransimitter for pain impulses
  43. (inflammation response to a trauma) increase what in blood?
    neutrophils
  44. what is leukocytosis?
    increased WBC
  45. (inflammation response to a trauma) triggers blood?
    coagulation
  46. (inflammation response to a trauma) what is capillary permeability with inflamation?
    inflamation causes leakage of fluid from blood into ECF -> swelling, hives, & WBC's congregate at injury to reduce infection
  47. is there increased capillary permability in inflamation?
    yes
  48. what is pyrexia?
    fever
  49. when should pyrexia be treated?(3)
    • when a patient is:
    • 1) young
    • 2) old
    • 3) poor health
  50. what does pyrexia do that is good?
    inhibits growth of pathogens
  51. what are the treatments for inflammation?
    (4)
    • 1)asprin (ASA)
    • 2)NSAIDs
    • 3)RICE (rest, ice, compresion, elevate.... heat)
    • 4) IF SEVERE!! steriods to block immune response ONLY IF NO INFECTION IS PRESENT!!
  52. what are the sideeffects of anti inflamitory treatment?
    (4)
    • 1) GI bleeding/ irritation
    • 2) decreased immune response
    • 3) constipation
    • 4) decreased blood clotting
  53. what are the body responses that increase body temperature? (5)
    • 1) shivers(chills)
    • 2) vasoconstriction in skin (pallor)
    • 3) increased BMR
    • 4) increased heart rate
    • 5) curl up body
  54. what are the bodies responses that increase heat loss? (4)
    • 1)vasodialation
    • 2) sweating
    • 3) lathargy
    • 4) extend body
  55. what controls temperature in the brain?
    hypothalamus
  56. what are pyrogens?
    fever producing substances
  57. what is granulation tissue?
    shinny red tissue grows after blood clot forms to seal off area and debris is removed ( takes a few days)
  58. what are the steps in wound healing?
    (4)
    • 1) granulation tissue
    • 2) new blood vessels grow to injured area
    • 3) epithelial cells then grow in from wound edges
    • 4) collagen (CT) forms-> scar (no hair, glands, non-functional)
  59. what is keloid?
    a hypertrophic scar tissue
  60. what is adhesion?
    hypertrophic bands of scar tissue connecting tissues that are not usually supposed to be connected; can occur after surgeries (esp. abdomen)
  61. what are the 2 types of wound healing?
    • 1) first intention-no scar forms/ clean surgical inscision
    • 2) second intention- obvious scar
  62. what do burns cause?
    • 1. severe inflammation
    • 2. capillary permaniblity
    • 3. edema
    • 4. decreased blood volume
    • 5. decreased BP->hypovolemic shock, death
  63. Burns cause loss of protein from what? (3)
    • 1. blood
    • 2. water
    • 3. electrolyte imbalances (esp. increased K from lysed cells)
    • ->cardiac arrest is possible
  64. What is the main intracellular electrolyte?
    K
  65. Burns have a high death rate due to?
    infection
  66. What are the 3 classifications of burns and what they are?
    • 1. partial thickness burn (to epidermis only)
    • 2. full thickness burn (to subcutanous layer+some muscle)
    • 3. deep partial thickness burn (to dermis also)
  67. What is the treatment of burns? (2)
    • Skin grafting:
    • 1. biosynthetic
    • 2. cadaver
  68. What are the 3 stages of disease?
    • 1. latent period
    • 2. prodromal period
    • 3. acute phase
  69. What are 3 characteristics of the latent period?
    • 1. "incubation period" is common
    • 2. Do not know you are sick
    • 3. microscopic level
  70. What is 1 characteristic of the prodromal period?
    vague, early symptoms
  71. What are the 3 paths you may take in the acute phase?
    • 1. cured
    • 2. remission
    • 3. Chronic WITH "EXACERBATION":comes again (flare-ups)
  72. What is 2 characteristics of the acute phase?
    • 1. S&S appear
    • 2. actively ill

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