ACU: General Chemistry 1 Exam #2

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ACU: General Chemistry 1 Exam #2
2010-10-05 22:04:11
General chemistry

acu gen chem exam 2
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  1. actual yield (isolated yield)
    amount of a specified pure product actually obtained from a reaction
  2. aqueous solution
    solution in which solvent is water
  3. concentration
    • amount of solute
    • volume or mass of solution or solvent
  4. molarity
    • moles of solute
    • L of solution
  5. percent by mass
    • mass of solute X100%
    • mass of solution
  6. percent yield
    • actual yield X100%
    • theoretical yield
  7. reaction stoichiometry
    qualitative relationship among substances as they participate in chemical reactions
  8. solute
    • dispersed medium
    • dispersing medium
    • homogenous mixture of 2 or more substances
  9. law of conservation of matter
    • no detectable change in the quantity of matter during a ordinary chemical reaction
    • no loss or gain of matter
  10. dilution of solutions
    V1M1 = V2M2
  11. absorbtion spectrum
    the spectrum associated w/ absorbtion of electromagnetic radiation by atoms resulting from transitions from lower to higher electronic energy states
  12. alkali metals
    alkali earths
    noble gases
    • Family: 1A
    • Family: 2A
    • Family: 7A
    • Family: 8A
  13. alpha paritcle
    helium ion w/ a 2+ charge; an assembly of 2 protons and 2 neutrons
  14. l
    • angular momentum quantum number
    • designates subshell or set of orbitals w/in a given main shell
    • l = n-1
    • ex. n=7; l=0,1,2,3,4,5,6
  15. anode
    positive electrode in cathode ray tube
  16. atomic mass unit (amu)
    arbitrary mass unit that is 1/12 the mass of the carbon-12 isotope
  17. atomic mass (weight)
    weighted average of the masses of the constituent isotopes of an element; the relative mass of atoms of different elements
  18. atomic number
    number of protons in the nucleus
  19. atomic orbital
    region or volume in space in which the probability of finding electrons is the highest
  20. Aufbau ("building up") Principle
    guide for predicting the order in which electrons fill subshells and shells in atoms
  21. Balmer- Rydberg equation
    relates wavelengths in the hydrogen emission spectrum to simple intergers
  22. canal ray
    a stream of positively charged paricles (cations) that moves toward the negative electrode in a cathode ray tube; observed to pass through canals (holes) in the negative electrode
  23. cathode
    negative electrod in the cathode ray tube
  24. cathode ray
    beam of electrons going from the negative electrode toward the postive electrode in a cathode-ray tube
  25. cathode ray tube
    a closed glass tube containing a gas under a low pressure w/ electrodes near the ends and a luminescent screen at the end near the positive electrode produces cathode rays when high voltage is applied
  26. chemical periodicity
    the variation in properties of elements w/ their positions in the periodic table
  27. continuous spectrum
    a spectrum that contains all wave-lengths in a specified region of the electromagnetic spectrum; rainbow
  28. d orbitals
    • begins in the 3rd shell
    • 5 orbitals per shell
    • 10 electrons total
    • higher energy than s and p in the same shell
  29. degenerate orbitals
    2 or more orbitals that have the same energy
  30. diamagnetism
    weak repulsion by a magnetic field; associated w/ all electrons in an atom, molecule, or substance being paired
  31. electromagnetic radiation
    energy that is propagated by means of electric and magnetic fields that oscillate in directions perpendicular to the direction of travel to the energy
  32. electron
    • subatomic particle
    • mass= .00054858
    • charge= -1
  33. electron configuration
    the specific distribution of electrons in the atomic orbitals of atoms and ions
  34. electron transition
    the transfer of an electron from one energy level to another
  35. emission spectrum
    the spectrum associated w/ emission of electromagnetic radiation by atoms or by other species resulting from electron transitions from higher to lower energy states
  36. excited states
    any energy state other than the ground state of an atom, ion, or molecule
  37. f orbitals
    • beginning in the 4th shell
    • 7 orbitals per shell
    • 14 electrons total
    • higher energy than s, p, and d orbitals in the same shell
  38. ferromagnetism
    • the property that allows a substance to become permanently magnetized when placed in a magnetic field
    • exhibited by iron, cobalt, and nickle and some of their alloys
  39. frequency (v)
    the numer of crests of a wave that pass a given point per unit time
  40. fundamental particles
    • wubatomis particles of which all matter is composed
    • protons, electrons, and neutrons are fundamental particles
  41. ground state
    the lowest energy state or most stable state of an atom, molecule, or ion
  42. group (family)
    the elements in a vertical column of the periodic table
  43. Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle
    it is impossible to determine accurately bothe the momentum and position of an electron simultaneously
  44. Hund's Rule
    each orbital of a given ubshell is occupied by a single electron before pairing begins
  45. isotopes
    • 2 or more forms of atoms of the same element w/ diggerent masses
    • atoms containing the same # or protons but different #s of neutrons
  46. line spectrum
    an atomic emission or absorption spectrum
  47. magnetic quantum # (ml)
    • quantum mechanical solution to a wave equation that designates the particular orbital w/in a given subshell (s,p,d,f) in which an electron resides.
    • the px, py, and pz orbitals have different magnetic quantum #s
  48. mass number
    the integral sum of the numbers of protons and neutrons in an atomm
  49. mass spectrometer
    an instrument that measures the charge-to-mass ratios of charged particles
  50. metal
    • an element below and to the left of the stepwise division (metalloids) of the periodic table; about 80% of the known elements
    • elements above and to the right of the metalloids in the periodic table
    • elements w/ properties intermediate between metals and nonmetals: B, Si, Ge, As, Sb, Te, Po, and At.
  51. natual radioactivity
    spontaneous decomposition of an atom
  52. neutron
    • subatomic particle
    • mass= 1.0087 amu
    • charge= 0
  53. nucleus
    the very small, very dense, positively charged center of an atom containing protons and neutrons, except for 11H
  54. nuclide symbol
    the symbol for an atom,azE, in which E in the symbol for an element, z is its atomic number and a is its mass number
  55. orbital
    each allowed wave description of a stable state for an electron in an atom; a region of space in which the probablility of finding an electron is high
  56. p orbitals
    beginning with the second shell, a set of three degenerate, mutually perpendicular, equal-arm, dumbbell-shaped atomic orbitals per shell
  57. pairing of electrons
    interaction of two electrons with opposite ms values in the same orbital also known as spin pairing
  58. paramagnetism
    attraction toward a magnetic field, stronger than diamagnetism, but still very weak compared w/ ferromagnetism; due to presence of unpaired electrons
  59. Pauli Exclusion Principle
    no 2 electrons in the same atom may have identical sets of 4 quantum numbers
  60. period
    the elements in a horizontal row of the periodic table
  61. periodic law
    the properties of hte elements are periodic functions of their atomic numbers
  62. periodic table
    an arrangement of elements in order of increasing atomic number that also emphasizes periodicity
  63. periodicity
    regular periodic variations of properties of elements w/ atomic number (and position in the periodic table)
  64. photoelectric effect
    emission of an electron from the surface of a metal, caused by impinging electromagnetic radiation of certain minimm energy; the resulting current increases with increasing intensity of radiation
  65. photon
    a "packet" of light or electromagnetic radiation; also called a quantum of light
  66. n
    • principal quantum number
    • designates the main shell, or energy level, in which an electron resides
  67. proton
    • subatomic particle
    • mass= 1.0073
    • charge= +1
  68. quantum
    • a "packet of energy"
    • proton
  69. quantum mechanics
    a mathematical method of treating particles ont he basis of quantum theory, which assumes that energy (of small particles) is not infinitely divisible
  70. quantum numbers
    numbers that describe the energies of electrons in atoms; they are derived from quantum cechanical treatment
  71. s orbital
    sperically symmetrical atomis orbital; one per shell
  72. spectral line
    any of a number of lines corresponding to definite wavelegths in an atomic emission or absorption spectrum; these lines represent the energy difference between two energy levels
  73. spectrum
    display of component wavelegths of electrommagnetic radiation
  74. ms
    • spin quantum number
    • indicates the relative spins of electrons ("spin up or spin down")
  75. wavelength
    the distance between two identical points of a wave
  76. Rutherford
    his "oil-drop" experiment was used to determine the exact electrical charge on an electron and its exact mass
  77. Einstein and Planck
    proposed that electrons behaved like "little packets of energy" which were called "photons" or "quanta". Einstein is also associated with the "photoelectric effect
  78. Bohr
    his model of the atom had a very small nucleus at the center surrounded by several circular orbits in which the electrons were placed. his model was used to explain the spectrum of hydrogen and the rydberg equation
  79. Heisenberg
    Uncertainty principle
  80. Pauli
    exclusion principle- no 2 electrons in an atom may have identical sets of 4 quantum numbers
  81. Rutherford
    gold leaf experiment- led to a new model of the atom in which there is a small dense nucleus surrounded by a diffuse electron cloud
  82. Thomson
    • plum pudding of raisin muffin model
    • identified cathode rays as being electrons
  83. Hund
    hund's principle- orbitals of equal energy are half-filled w/ electrons before spin pairing occurs
  84. Mendeleev
    father of the periodic table
  85. de Broglio
    concluded that very small particles such as electrons also display wave properties
  86. Goldstein
    noticed that a beam of positive particles were generated in vacuum tubes in addition to cathode rays. these poitive paritcles wer called "canal rays" and eventually identified as protons
  87. Moseley
    in 1913, young englishman that determined that the atomic number of an atom was more fundamental to determining the properties of the elements than atomic weight. he enlisted in the british army and was killed at Gallipoli in 1915
  88. Sir William Crookes
    • first to use cathode ray tubes
    • determined that cathode rays are negatively charged and have mass
  89. Chadwick
    discovered the nucleus of the atom contains more than just protons (neutrons)