AP CHAP 6

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AP CHAP 6
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2010-10-07 20:42:05
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AP CHAP 6
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  1. One of the functions of bone is "electrolyte balance."
    Which of the following best represents this role.

    A) Bones exhange all types of electrolytes with the blood and with cartilage.
    B) Bones store calcium and phosphorus and release them into the blood as needed.
    C) Bones take up and store electrolytes but seldom release them.
    D) Bones are storage places for electrolytes, iron, proteins, and fats.
    B
  2. Which of the following best describes the role of a lacuna in the bone?

    A) A cavity within a bone to house a osteocyte.
    B) an indentation within a bone that houses an osteoclast
    C) a space within the bone for marrow development
    D) another term for the diploe of a flat bone.
    A
  3. Cartilage grows by 2 mechanisms: interstitial growth and appositional growth. Which pair of terms best describes the methods?

    A) medical and lateral
    B) promial and distal
    C) internal and on the surface
    D) left and right
    C
  4. The shaft of a bone is known as the

    A) epiphysis
    B) metaphysis
    C) periosteum
    D) diaphysis
    D
  5. The growth zone of a lone bone is referred to as the

    A) osteon
    B) epiphyseal plate
    C) articular surface
    D) diaphysis
    B
  6. A tissue that surrounds a long bone, made of a double layer of connective tissue, is referred to as the :

    A) endosteum
    B) marrow
    C) growth plate
    D) periosteum
    D
  7. What type of bone tissue surrounds a medullary cavity.

    A) compact bone
    B) medullary bone
    C) spongy bone
    D) replacement bone
    C
  8. Sharpey's fibers, located on the periphery of a bone, are

    A) collagen fibers from ligaments that attach to bone
    B) elastic fibers that are found in tendons
    C) fibers that make up the structure of endosteum
    D) elastic fibers that make up the structure of periosteum
    A
  9. The lattice of spongy bone, consisting of plates, rods, and spines, is called.

    A) marrow
    B) trabeculae
    C) lacunae
    D) endosteum
    B
  10. The end of a long bone is referred to as the

    A) epiphysis
    B) metaphysis
    C) diaphysis
    D) periosteum
    A
  11. Examples of bones that are "irregular" in shape are

    A) femur, skull, and sternum
    B) vertebrae and some skull bones
    C) radius and ulna
    D) radius, tibia, femur, and patella
    B
  12. Which of the following is squamous epithelium that lines the medullary cavity of a bone to begin the formation of marrow?

    A) periosteum
    B) osteocytes
    C) endosteum
    D) trabeculae with osteoclasts
    C
  13. Passing through the periostum of bones are arteries, veins, and

    A) nerves
    B) adipose tissue
    C) Volkmann's canals
    D) the spinal cord
    A
  14. Which of the following bones is considered to be flat?

    A) femur
    B) sternum
    C) vertebra
    D) talus
    B
  15. Which of the following is classified as a long bone?

    A) phalanx
    B) sternum
    C) vertebra
    D) talus
    A
  16. The epiphyseal plate is located in the

    A) diaphysis
    B) spongy bone zone
    C) mid-bone as in the middle of the clavicle
    D) metaphysis
    D
  17. Once an endochondral bone has completed its ossification, the bone now has a ____ where the old epiphyseal plate existed.

    A) medullary cavity
    B) line of cartilage
    C) foramina
    D) epiphyseal line
    D
  18. Bones are

    A) cartilage
    B) connective tissue
    C) organs
    D) all of the above
    D
  19. In compact bone, the Haversian canals go the length of the bone. What are the connectors from one Haversian canal to another?

    A) Volkmann's canals
    B) Haversian II canals
    C) semicircular canals
    D) blood canals
    A
  20. Cancellous bone is often referred to as ____ bone.

    A) compact
    B) woven
    C) spongy
    D) modeled
    C
  21. Cancellous bone has spaces within that are deigned for the housing of

    A) new osteocytes
    B) future osteocytes
    C) marrow and blood vessels
    D) undifferentiated cells for development of bone
    C
  22. An osteaon (Haversian system) is actually

    A) a Haversian canal and its lamellae
    B) a growth of new bone
    C) layers of bone in a fontanel
    D) a bone that had demineralized
    A
  23. Since bone is a connective tissue, it has all the necessary features of a connective tissure including matrix. What makes up the matrix of a bone?

    A) collagen, elastic fibers, and other proteins
    B) osteoblasts and osteoclasts
    C) collagen, proteins, and hydroxyapatite
    D) sodium, calcium, phosphorus, elastic fibers and some adipose tissue.
    C
  24. If collagen and minerals are removed from a bone, what happens to the bone?

    A) it becomes stiff and brittle
    B) no noticable differences occur with the bone.
    C) it becomes soft and rubbery
    D) it breaks apart into thousands of small pieces.
    C
  25. Which of the following types of bone develps out of a non-carilage connective tissue scaffold?

    A) intramembranous
    B) replacement
    C) endochondral
    D) perichondral
    A
  26. Bone cells that manufacture new bone are known as

    A) osteoblasts
    B) osteoclasts
    C) ostemesoclasts
    D) chondrocytes
    A
  27. The center of an osteon is known as a Heversian canal. What passes through the center of the canal?

    A) water
    B) blood and nerves
    C) osteocytes
    D) chondrocytes
    B
  28. Which of the following types of cells puts calcium and phosphorus into bone as well as manufatures bone?

    A) osteoclasts
    B) osteoblasts
    C) osteons
    D) matrix cells
    B
  29. Osteocytes must have the ability to receive nutrients from the blood and an ability to return wastes to the blood. Connectors between the osteocytes and the blood vessels are known as:

    A) Volkmann's canals
    B) central canals
    C) perforating canals
    D) canaliculi
    D
  30. Osteoclasts are active cells that tear down bone. They do this by secreating an enzyme that dissoves the collagen in the bone matrix. Which of the follwoing is that enzyme?

    A) hydroxyapatase
    B) acid phosphatase
    C) calcium acid
    D) epiphyseal reduction
    B
  31. In children and adolescents, what is the epiphyseal plate composed of?

    A) bone
    B) hyaline cartilage
    C) collagen fibers
    D) elastic fiber, collagen fibers, and elastic cartilage
    B
  32. Normal formation of bone is known as osteogenesis. Another term for bone formation is

    A) osteoporosis
    B) ossification
    C) osteosarcoma
    D) osteocyte
    B
  33. Endrochondral ossification begins at what age?

    A) during fetal development
    B) birth
    C) puberty
    D) adulthood
    A
  34. Endochondral ossification ends at what age?

    A) birth
    B) puberty
    C) adulthood
    D) about age 50
    C
  35. The bone formed by endochondral ossification is called ___ bone.

    A) replacement
    B) cartilage
    C) membrane
    D) compact
    A
  36. Most of the peripheral skeleton of a 7 month old fetus is primarily

    A) adipose tissue
    B) cartilage tissue
    C) general fetal tissue
    D) undifferentiated bone tissue
    B
  37. The term "appositional growth" refers to bone growth that occurs

    A) before birth
    B) in the epiphysis only
    C) on the surface of cartilage, bone or older bone
    D) inside of the lacuna
    C
  38. The epiphyseal plate is the zone of

    A) new growth for endochondral ossification
    B) growth in intramembranous bone
    C) growth in the skull bones only
    D) growth in the leg bones only
    A
  39. The epiphyseal plate is divided into 4 zones. The region where the bone grows longer is the zone of

    A) resting cartilage
    B) proliferation
    C) hypotrophy
    D) calcification
    C
  40. The epiphyseal plate is divided into 4 zones. The region where chondrocytes mature and enlarge is the zone of

    A) resting cartilage
    B) proliferation
    C) hypertrophy
    D) calcification
    B
  41. The epiphyseal plate is divided into 4 zones. The region where the
    carilage matrix is mineralized with calcium carbonate is the zone of

    A) resting cartilage
    B) proliferation
    C) hypertrophy
    D) calcification
    D
  42. 2 of the primary hormones for bone growth and development are:

    A) bone growth hormone and epiphyseal growth hormone.
    B) human growth hormone and thyroid hormone
    C) thyroid stimulating hormone and body growth hormone.
    D) pituitary hormone and bone growth hormone.
    B
  43. Intramembranous ossification results in the formation of bones that belong to which class of bones.

    A) skull and ribs
    B) ribs, clavicles, and spine
    C) flat bones of the clavicle and skull
    D) spine, skull, ribs, and scapulas
    C
  44. Before the process of intramembranous offification, which of the following type of tissue is found in the associated membranes of the skull and clavicles.

    A) cartilage
    B) bone
    C) epithelium
    D) collagen fibers
    D
  45. The process of intramembranous ossification begins when?

    A) during embryonic developement
    B) at birth
    C) in the teenage years
    D) around the time of full development
    A
  46. The type of cell that brings about intramembranous ossification are:

    A) osteoblasts
    B) osteocyte
    C) osteon
    D) osteoclasts
    A) Osteoblasts
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  47. The development of the fontanel is brought about by

    A) the unossified fibrous membranes in the skull
    B) membranous deossification
    C) endochondral ossification
    D) hypertrophy of osteocytes
    A
  48. Woven bone is fromed during which of the following situations?

    A) puberty
    B) fetal development and after fractures
    C) the first few months following birth
    D) periods of bone decalcification in old age
    B
  49. Lamellar bone is bone that

    A) arises out of cartilage
    B) arises out of collagen and elastic fibers
    C) replaces worn out and fractured bone
    D) is mature and is organized into thin sheets or layers.
    D
  50. If a 12 year old were to fracture their epiphyseal plate, the result of the damage could be that the bone

    A) grows abnormally brittle
    B) may stop growing at the plate
    C) may grow much thicker at the site of the injury
    D) has greatly increased potential for a sarcoma
    B
  51. Which of the following is the most accurate definition of "bone remodeling"?

    A) a bone that develops during fetal development and stays with us for life.
    B) the construction of bone around blood vessels for a Haversian canal.
    C) they laying out of new bone in a fracture site.
    D) removal of old bone by osteoclasts and making of new bone by osteoblasts
    D)
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  52. Following a bone fracture a callus builds around the fracture site. Callus is a

    A) mass of blood vessels
    B) mass of tissue
    C) collection of blood vessels and collagen at the fracture site.
    D) mass of old broken bone pieces
    C)
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  53. Which of the following fractures refers to a fracture of a bone in multiple pieces?

    A) complete
    B) incomplete
    C) impacted
    D) comminuted
    D
  54. Which of the following fractures is often referred to as being a "greenstick" fracture?

    A) complete
    B) incomplete
    C) impacted
    D) comminuted
    B)
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  55. Which of the following fractures goes all the way through a bone, but does not break it into mulitple pieces?

    A) incomplete
    B) comminuted
    C) impacted
    D) complete
    D)
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  56. The term "calcium homeostasis" refers to which of the follwoing?

    A) balance of calcium between the bone and the cartilage
    B) movement of calcium to and from cartilage and bone.
    C) balance of calcium betweeen the blood and the bones
    D) creation of calcium by bones
    C)
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  57. Which of the following glands plays a major role in calcium homeostasis?

    A) adrenal
    B) parathyroid
    C) ovaries and testes
    D) thymus
    B
  58. If blood calcium levels decrease, which of the following hormones is released to take calcium out of bones and put it into the blood?

    A) calcitonin
    B) calcium hydroxyl hormone
    C) parathyroid hormone
    D) human growth hormone
    C
  59. If blood calcium levels increase, which of the following hormones is released to take calcium from the blood and place into the bones?

    A) pituitary hormone
    B) parathyroid hormone
    C) calcitonin
    D) human growth hormone
    C)
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  60. Calcitrol is a(n)

    A) bone growth hormone
    B) form of calcium stored in bones
    C) activated form of vitamin D
    D) excretion of the thyroid and parathyroid glands.
    C
  61. The general function of calcitriol in relation to bone cell activity is that it

    A) inhibits the action of osteoblasts.
    B) increases osteoclast activity
    C) destroys osteocytes
    D) stops all bone growth activity
    B

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