Inflammation of the connective tissue that lies between the renal tubules.
Kidney stones (renal calculi)
Group of clinical signs and symptoms caused by excessive protein loss in urine.
Nephrotic syndrome (nephrosis)
Multiples fluid-filled sacs (cysts) within and on the kidney.
Polycystic kidney disease (PKD)
Inflammation on the lining of the renal pelvis and renal parenchyma.
Cancerous tumor of the kidney in adulthood.
Renal cell carcinoma (hypernephroma)
Kidney decreases excretion of wastes as a result of impaired filtration function.
High blood pressure resulting from kidney disease.
Malignant tumor of the kidney occurring in childhood.
Malignant tumor of the urinary bladder.
Antidiuretic hormone is not secreted adequately, or the kidney is resistant to its effect.
Insulin is not secreted adequately or not used properly in the body.
Measurement of urea levels in blood.
Blood urea nitrogen (BUN)
Measurement of the rate at which creatinine is cleared from the blood by the kidney.
X-ray images show multiple cross-sectional and other views of organs and tissues.
X-ray examinatino (without contrast) of the kidneys, ureters, and bladder.
Kidneys, ureters, and bladder (KUB)
X-ray examination (with contrast) of the blood vessels of the kidney.
X-ray imaging of the renal pelvis and ureters after injection of contrast through a urinary catheter into the ureters from the bladder.
Retrograde pyelogram (RP)
X-ray record (with contrast) of the urinary bladder and urethra obtained while the patient is voiding.
Voiding cystourethrogram (VCUG)
Imaging of urinary tract structures using high-frequency sound waves.
Image of the kidney after injection a radioactive substance (radioisotope) into the bloodstream.
Changing magnetic field produces images of the kidney and surrounding structures in three planes of the body.
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
Direct visualization of the urethra and urinary bladder with an endoscope (cystoscope).
Process of separating nitrogenous waste materials from the blood.
Use of an artificial kidney machine that receives waste-filled blood from the patient's bloodstream, filters it, and returns the dialyzed blood to the patient's body.
Use of a peritoneal catheter to introduce fluid into the peritoneal (abdominal) cavity; chemical properties of the fluid cause wastes in the capillaries of the peritoneum to pass out of the bloodstream and into the fluid and then removed by catheter.
Peritoneal dialysis (PD)
Urinary tract stones are crushed.
Dilation of narrowed areas in renal arteries.
Removal of kidney tissue for microscopic examination.
Sugical transfer of a kidney from a donor to a recipient.
Passage of a flexible, tubular instrument through the urethra into the urinary bladder.
cup-like collection region of the renal pelvis
calyx or calix
tube for injecting or removing fluids
outer region of an organ
nitrogenous waste excreted in urine
chemical element that carries an electrical charge when dissolved in water
hormone secreted by the kidney to stimulate the production of red blood cells by bone marrow
process whereby some substances, but not all, pass through a filter (kidney=glomerulus)
enclosing structure surrounding each glomerulus; collects the material that is filtered from the blood through the walls of the glomerulus
glomerular capsule OR Bowman capsule
tiny ball of capillaries (microscopic blood vessels) in the kidneys
glomerulus (pl: glomeruli)
depression in an organ where blood vessels and nerves enter and leave
one of two bean-shaped organs on either side of the backbone in the lumbar region; filters nitrogenous wastes from the bloodstream to form urine
opening or canal
inner region of an organ
combination of glomerulus and renal tubule where filtration, reabsorption, and secretion take place in the kidney
substance containing nitrogen and excreted in urine
an electrolyte regulated by the kidney so that a proper concentration is maintained within the blood
process whereby renal tubules return materials necessary to the body back into the bloodstream
blood vessel that carries blood to the kidney
central collecting region in the kidney
microscopic tubes in the kidney where urine is formed after filtration
blood vessel that carries blood away from the kidney and toward the heart
hormone secreted by the kidney; it raises blood pressure by influencing vasoconstriction
an electrolyte regulated in the blood and urine by the kidneys
triangular area in the urinary bladder
major nitrogenous waste excreted in urine
one of the two tubes leading from the kidneys to the urinary bladder
tube leading from the urinary bladder to the outside of the body
nitrogenous waste excreted in the urine
hollow, muscular sac that holds and stores urine
process of expelling urine; also called micturition