RPTS 202 Exam 1

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RPTS 202 Exam 1
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2010-10-06 00:03:18
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  1. Know the key variables for defining TOURISM (!)
    Time, Distance, Purpose
  2. Know the four different variables causing tourism to be "complex" (!)
    • 1. The tourist
    • 2. THe businesses providing goods and services
    • 3. The government of the host community
    • 4. The Host community
  3. Know the three key variables for defining when someone is a tourist (!)
    • Time
    • Distance
    • Purpose

    • Suppy (accom, food, trans, etc.)
    • Demand (the tourist's desire)
  4. Understand the Phases of tourism; and an association related to each (!)
    • 1. Anticipation and Planning: American Society of Travel Agents
    • 2. Travel to the site: American Automobile Association
    • 3. The on-site Experience- National Restaurant Association
    • 4. Return Travel: International Air Transport Association
    • 5. Recollection: World Travel Association
  5. Grand Tour (!) (FITB)
    • The first study abroad
    • Wealth young men
    • England, Switzerland, Germany, Italy
    • Motivations: culture, health, pleasure, curiosity, science, career, education, art and scenery
    • Took about 4 months
    • Tribulations= Theft, alps, rivers
    • Carriage Rentals: 1829
    • Industrial Revolution (1750) started downfall
  6. Know the key services COOK offered, and the things he introduced to tourism (!)
    • Services: connections, tickets, timetables, currency exchange, travel guides, the tour
    • Introduced: circular tickets, Cook's coupons, and circular notes
  7. Understand the challenges and opportunities associated with tourism (!)
    Can growth and development occur without creating environmental problems?

    How will technology effect tourism?

    As tourism grows, where will the workforce come from?

    Will tourism change the social structure of countries/communities?
  8. Marketing Mix Mobility Era (!)
    Marketing concept: doing research to understand customers to be ale to satisfy them
  9. Four P's (!)
    • Price
    • Product
    • Place
    • Promotion
  10. ROI (Return of Investment) (!)
    =Monetary return on every $1 spent

    If i spent $1000 on advertising and received $2000 of sales on those ads, my ROI would be $2 for very dollar spent
  11. Consumer Behavior (!)
    Study of how individuals or groups select, purchase, and use goods and services to satisfy wants and needs
  12. Push and Pull Factors (!)
    • Push: those things internal to the tourist which make them desire travel
    • (attitudes, values, perception, learning, personality, norms

    Pull: things external that are contrived to make a destination more appealing
  13. Optimal Arousal Theory (!)
    Tourism is guided primarily by intrinsic motives and the need to escape stress, excessive stimulation, and the mundane

    Through travel, the tourist seeks the stimulation or the peace and tranquility they may not have at home or work
  14. Segment Markets (FITB)
    • Segmentation types:
    • Geographic Segmentation (gravity)
    • Demographic
    • Psychographic (not who, but how/why)
    • -lifestyle, values, attitudes, desires
    • Product/Service-related (leisure, business)
    • -based on benefits, preferences, loyalty
  15. 5 step approach for segmenting a market (!)
    • 1. Choose a segmentation approach
    • 2. Profile the segments
    • 3. Forecast each segments potential
    • 4. Decide which segment should be targeted
    • 5. Estimate likely market share per segment
  16. Know the differences between Elastic and Inelastic (!)
    Inelastic: (doesn't change) cheap hotels and restaurants, business travelers

    Elastic: (Changes) high end hotels and restaurants, leisure
  17. Good Segments (FITB)
    Substantial, exploitable, identifiable, durable

    Long term (dolly) VS. short term (christina)
  18. Heterogeneous Mature Travelers (!)
    (55 and older)

    50% of US disposable income
  19. Influences upon a tourist (!)
    TB= f(EF,IF)
  20. Know the various perceptual principles, and how they can be used by management (!) (FITB)
    • Sensory Adaption
    • -Taking thins for granted= Need innovation

    • Color and Contrast
    • -bright vs. dull

    • Context
    • -the setting of the interrelated conditions in which something exists/occurs (expectations)

    • Figure Ground
    • -Item/object that a person will focus on

    • Closure
    • -tendency to complete the picture, if only a portion is given

    • Proximity
    • -assoc. of events occurring closely in time

    • Perceptual Constancy
    • -the ability to view an object as the same, even though the stimulus is changing

    • Selective Perception
    • -Screening out of selecting specific types of information due to motivations, experiences, or culture
    • -Weber/ Fechner Law
    • -Amount of change needed to notice differences in relative o the amount of initial stimulus
  21. 3 components of an attitue and which is easiest and hardest to change (!)
    Affective- emotion

    Cognitive- assumed facts/ beliefs

    Behavioral- person's actions
  22. Know he role that credibility plays in attitudes (!)
    Persuasion: can we change attitudes?

    Source: Credibility

    Family/ Friends VS. Strangers
  23. Explain the various learning methods (!)
    • Conditioning
    • -Stimulus-Response

    • Modeling
    • -by observing or watching

    • Latent Learning
    • -by doing
  24. Know the differences between a product and a service (!)
    Products are tangible and services are intangible
  25. Explain the various forms of promotion(!)
    • Communication
    • -credibility, attribution, encoding, saliency

    • Personal Selling
    • -moments of truth

    Advertising

    Publicity and Public Relations

    • Sales promotions
    • -Incentives, contests, samples, coupons

    Word of mouth
  26. Know the various ways to sell tourism (!)
    • Personal Selling
    • -find customer needs, sell correct tour

    • Missionary sales
    • -Dont actively solicit business
    • -Selling intermediaries your product/service

    • Who helps you sell?
    • -CVB's, Chambers of Commerce, Tourism Offices (local to national)
  27. Know the ranking of tourism in comparison to other industries (*)
    • Worlds 3rd largest industry (Auto and Food Stores)
    • Employs 7.6 million people in US
    • Imports to US: $94 Billion
    • Exports from US: $82 Billion
  28. Know the Ranking of Texas as a US tourism destination (*)
    • Ranks 2nd Nationally: behing CA
    • 29.2 Bilion travelers o texas annually
    • over 450,000 tourism related jobs
    • Generates over $1.7 Million in texas
  29. Imports VS Exports (*)
    Imports: monies coming into your economy from tourism

    Exports: monies that are leaving your economy from tourism
  30. Know the expenditure patterns of tourists (*)
    • $.38= Transportation
    • $.26 =Food
    • $.17= Lodging
    • $.10= Entertainment
    • $.09= Incidentals
  31. Characteristics of Travel and Tourism (*)
    • Movement: Inflow and Outflow
    • Multipurpose: retail, gas, food
    • Exchange of Money
    • Its Local/ Global
    • Massive growing industry
    • May promote peace and understanding: learning other cultures
    • the industry is Fragmented
  32. Know the various impacts that tourism may have on a community (*)
    • Energy Use
    • Urban Revitalization
    • Environmental Quality
    • Economic Growth
    • Trade Deficits
    • Full Employment
    • Quality of Life
  33. Know the various components of the integrated model of tourism (*)
    • External Environment
    • - Society and Culture, Politics, Technology, Environment, Economy

    • Tourism Services Suppliers
    • -Destinations, Attractions/ Entertainment, Transportation, Food & Beverage, Accommodations

    • Tourism Promoters
    • -Tour Operators, Tourist Boards, Direct Marketing, Meeting Planners, Travel Agents

    Travellers
  34. Roman Empire (*)
    (500 BC to 300 AD)

    • Tourism for both Middle Class and Wealthy
    • Good roads (50,000 mile system)
    • Roman Currency and Greek/Latin universal
    • Common Legal System
    • Inns=30 miles apart
  35. Mass Tourism (*)
    WWI and WWII

    • Technology and desire increase
    • Automobiles: Better roads
    • Airplanes: Lindbergh
    • Credit Card
    • Leisure time: Fair Labor Standards Acts (1948)
    • Oil Crises
  36. Crusades(*)
    (1096 to 1291)

    • Attempting to regain the holy land (9 of them)
    • Exchange of ideas and goods (desire is born)
    • Afforded less wealthy to travel
  37. Pilgrimages (*)
    (1200 to 1300)

    • Religion/ Health= adventure and learning
    • Destinations were born
    • Arrested and beaten if not a holy mission
  38. Various types of geography (*)
    • Physical: landforms, H2O, Vegetation, Climate
    • Human (Cultural): language, religion, dress, food, customs
    • Regional: effects of climate, time of year, etc.
  39. Business perspectives (*)
    • Marketing
    • Meeting the needs/desires of visitors
    • importance of segmentation

    • Management
    • planning, organizing, directing and controlling

    • Finance
    • Accounting= communication of financing
    • ROI= profit, multiplier and debt
  40. Primary/Secondary (*)
    Primary: needs; things we need to live

    Secondary: wants; must fill primary needs first
  41. Short/ Long term (*)
    short term: small portion of your lifetime

    Long term: continue through your lifetime
  42. Intrinsic/ Extrinsic (*)
    Intrinsic: for ourselves

    Extrinsic: for other people
  43. Pearce Leisure Ladder (*)
    • Fulfillment: feeling peaceful, totally involved
    • Self-esteem and development: developing skills, knowledge, and abilities; competency
    • Relationship: build/extend relations; enjoying through others
    • Stimulation: optimal arousal for themselves; safe but not bored
    • Relaxation and Bodily Needs: emphasize basic needs; enjoy sense of escape
  44. Psychographic Dimensions (*)
    • High-energy Allocentrics (south pole)
    • -Frequent travelers, use air, exotic, unique

    • Low-energy Allocentrics (south pacific)
    • - by air, less frequent, more in fantasy

    • High-energy Psychocentrics (miami beach)
    • -Active, by car of RV

    • Low-energy Psychocentrics (Disney)
    • -Stay home, near familiar surroundings
  45. Know various barriers to travel (*)
    • Cost
    • Time
    • Health
    • Family Stage
    • Lack of Interest
    • Fear and Security
  46. Know the various ways perception can be influenced (*)
    Learning, past experiences, peers, atmosphere
  47. Stereotype (*)
    Characteristics which people assign to a certain type of person, a group, or a set of objects= unnecessary labeling
  48. Understand how a host communities attitude is related to attachment (*)
    the more attached a person is to the host community the more resentment they hold toward tourism
  49. Know the value that Americans feel are the most important (*)
    • Self Respect (21%)
    • Security (21%)
    • Warm Relationships (16%)
    • Accomplishment (11%)
    • Self-Fulfillment (10%)
    • Being Well-Respected (9%)
    • Belonging (8%)
    • fun, Excitement, and Enjoyment (4%)
  50. Know the P's of Marketing (*)

    Product
    (Usually mostly a service)

    • Intangible (service) vs. tangible (product)
    • Participation= created together
    • Non-returnable
    • Seasonal
    • Fragmented
    • "Actors" "Stage"
  51. Know the four P's of Marketing (*)

    Price
    Implies quality, value and rarity
  52. Know the four P's of Marketing (*)

    Promotion
    • As communication
    • -Credibility, attribution, ancoding, saliency

    • Personal Selling
    • -Moments of truth

    • Advertising
    • -Publicity and Public Relations
    • -Sales Promotions
    • -Incentives, contests, samples, coupons
    • -Word of Mouth
  53. Know the four P's of Marketing (*)

    Place
    Ease of Distribution
  54. Know the various pricing guidelines that marketers use (*)
    • Integrate goals, pricing and profit
    • Consider key markets
    • Analyze demand
    • math price with quality
    • Calculate Costs
    • Consider Competition
    • Consider marketing mix
    • use a pricing procedure
  55. Service Continuum (*)
    Pure service to goods with little service

    Tangibles VS Intangibles
  56. Know what Consolidators do (*)
    Buy the excess inventory of unsold tickets then resell these tickets at discounted prices through travel agents and or directly to travelers
  57. Know the differences between 1, 2, & 3 level distribution channels (*)
    One Level: Service Provider - Customer

    Two-Level: Service Provider - Travel Agent - Customer

    Three-Level: Service Provider - Travel Operator - Travel Agent - Customer

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