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Why Fleet Safety
- Saves Lives
- Financially Rewarding
- Compliance with required regulations
- Maintain competitive edge
- Customer trust
Intrastate Vs. Interstate
Intra = Within the state
Inter = Out of state
Costs of Vehicle Accidents
- Direct and Indirect costs
- Insurance Premiums
- Liability and lawsuits
- Down time, cargo loss, clean up
- Loss of Revenue
Cost of Employee Accidents
- Direct and indirect costsWorkers Comp Premiums
- Lost Workdays
- Supervisor's time
- Cost to hire/train replacement employees
- Accident investigations and reporting
- Training cost after management weaknesses revealed
Costs of Off-the-Job accidents
- Non productive time
- Replacement workers
Process Vs. Program
A Process does not have an end, there should always be continued improvements.
A Program has a beginning and an end and is part of a process.
Why is it important to Control Vehicle Accidents
- Insurance Primiums increase
- Costs of accidents go up
- Federal or State DOT comes in for non compliance issues
- Customer perception
- Employee moraleNow the competition has an advantage
- Commitment to resolve problems24/7/365
- Top down philosophy
- Poor accident record=A poor manager
- Leadership motivates and makes it happen
- Improved SupervisionCommunications
- Enforce policies and procedures
- Assures a total safety process is in place
Managements Responsibility Cont.
- Develops and enforces written safety policy and standards
- Assures the reporting and recording accidents, injuries and results
- Responsible for selecting, training and supervising all employees
- Encourages and recognizes excellent performance
Standards and Policies
- Clear and visible safety process must be in place
- Mangement commitment is essential top to bottom
- employees must be aware of the written safety policy
- Supervision is responsible and accountable
- Budget must reflect all aspects of management commitment toward safety
- Written and understood by all
- Assigns responsibility and accountability
- Provides for follow-up measures
- Safety DIrector has direct input with Executive Staff (Cannot do themselves)
- Estavlishing an accident reporting policy
- Applying information from reports to prevent future occurrence
Selecting, Training and Supervising Personnel
- Selecting Drivers
- Ensuring vehicle and Employee Safety
- Supervising safety activities
- Motivating employees for success
- Correcting actions for poor or undesirable performance
Motor Vehicle Safey Program
- CauseLack of selection system
- Lack of driver supervision
- Lack of orientation training program
- Supervisors lack accident prevention experience
- So what is the solution?Promote a safety culture
What is the leading cause of workplace fatalities (Fleet safety Culture)
- Transportation and Highway IncidentsMore work related fatalities resulted from transportation incidents than any other event.
- Highway incidents alone accounted for nearly on out of every four fatal work injuries.
- Women had a higher percentage of fatal injuries resulted from hwy incidents and homicides than men.
- Highest number of fatalities by occupation was Driver/Sales workers and truck drivers.
- 70% fo the fatalities for Driver/Sales workers and truckers were due to hwy vehicle accidents.
- 20% of fleet drivers will be involved in a motor vehicle accident.
OSHA regulations tend to take precedence (Fleet Safety Culture)
- Companies expend significant resources to train employees
- Same approach is not applied to fleet driver safety
- Vehicle accidents are going to happen... "They are Commonplace"
Ruduce accidnet rates and in you will reduce:
- Personal Injury
- Property Damage
- Workers Comp Claims
- Liability Exposure
- Lost Productivity
- Must be Evident at the StartNew hires must be informed
- Consider Driving Record
- Number of violations
- Driving Record - the basis of employment
- Existing DriversAnnual driving record checks
- More than just "reportable" accidents
- Include moving violations
- Establish criteria for disipline
Safety Philosophy-Establish job classifications that are required to drive as a condition of employment.
- Rank highest to lowest according to risk factorsMiles driven
- Amount of driving time
- Accident frequency rates
- Occasional driver programDevelop training program to satisfy needs
Safety Philosophy Cont.
- Enforce the training program "top to bottom"
- Maintain fleet statistics to determine problem areas:
- New Employees30-40% of driving employees with less than 18 months on the job, will have motor vehicle accidents
- Take a proactive approach
- Require mandatory training...Written test and behind the wheel oberservations.
Safety Philosophy Cont.
- Periodic reminders about driver safetyCommunicate Statistics
- Accident information
- Seasonal driving tips
- Refresher training
- Maintain fleet accident data
- Management CommitmentInclude management into the process
- Training, hiring, enforcement, observations, etc.
Safety Philosophy Cont.
- Keep abreast of the cost benefits of the programDetermine the return on investment (ROI)
- Communicate to Management
- Overcome the "Negative" Perception.Implement incentives for safe drivers
- Program designed to protect drivers
- An investment in their futures.
- Employee participation is vital
Focus on Federal DOT
October 15, 1966
April 7, 1967
"Serve United States by ensuring fast, safe, efficient accessible and convenient transportation system that meets our vital national interests and enhances the quality of life of the American people, today and into the future"
How many Individual operating administrations are within the DOT
Our class focus is the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA)
- Title 49 CFR - Subtitle B - Part 300-399
- Established within the DOT on Jan. 1, 2000
- Result of the Motor Carrier Improvement Act of 1999
Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration's Mission
- Prevent Commercial Motor Vehicle related fatalities and injuries by:
- Strong enforcement of safety Regs
- Targeting "high-risk" carriers and CMV drivers
- Improving safety information systems and technologies
- Strengthen CMV equipment and operating standards
- Increase safety awareness
- Work with other federal agencies, state and local enforcement agencies as well as laor and safety interest groups.
- Performance and Registration Information Systems Management Program (PRISM)
- Lack of compliance may result in out-of-service order, suspension or revocation of privileges.
Pa Department of Transportation
The Departments objective is to enhance mobility, commerce, safety and the economic vitality of the Commonwealth through transporation system improvements, within the context of sound land use and community values.
OSHA Act did what
- Enacted to ensure safe and healthful work conditions
- Covers enery employeer engauged in business affecting interstate commerce who has one or more employees
- Created to promulgate and enforce safety and health standards
Department of Transportation Act did what
- Primary purpose is to protect the public and transportation equipment; measures to protect the public also protect employees
- Covers transportation by aircraft, rail, vessels, and motor vehicles.
- The DOT was created to administer and enforce transportation regulations.
Federal Railroad Aministration (FRA) does what
- Enforces DOT regs applicable to rail carriers, shippers by rail, and manufacturers of tank cars. Also enforces the Hazardous Materials Regs.
- Administers Federal railroad safety laws
- Issues orders to address hazards caused by the transportation of hazardous materials.
Federal Highway Administration (FHA) does what
- Enforces DOT regs applicable to motor carriers, shippers by hwy and manufacturers of cargo tanks through the Office of Motor Carrier Field Operations. Also enforces the Hazardous Materials Regs
- Administers Federal motor carrier safety laws
Association of Waste Hazardous Materials Transporters
OSHA or DOT Jurisdiction?
- OSH ActSection 4(b) (1) of the OSH Act states that OSHA does not have jurisdiction over health and Safety if another Federal agency exercises its statutory authority in this area.
- US courts interpret the OSH Act using the Gap Theory or Hazard by Hazard approach:If DOT has a regulation that would reduce or eliminate the workplace hazard, DOT regulations apply.
- If DOT does not hace a regulation to address the hazard, OSHA regulations apply
DOT has Jurisdiction for:
- Intransit operations between destination point, including readjusting and securing the load.
- Proper handling of hazardous materials during loading and unloading vehicles and rail cars according to the Hazardous Materials Regulations in 49 CFR 171-180
OSHA has jurisdiction for:
- Actions associated with loading and unloading the vehicle or railcar at destination points where DOT does not address a safety or health hazard
- Response to hazardous waste emergencies.
Part 390 Federal Motor Carrier Safety Regs
Federal Motor Carrier Safety Regulations (FMCSR) apply to:
- Commercial Motor Vehicles
- Which transport property or passengers in interstate commerce
Exceptions to General Applicability
- Transportation provided by Federal state and local governments
- Occasional transportation of personal property by individuals for non-commercial purposes.
- School bus operations
- Transportation of human corpses or sick and injured people
- CMVs carrying between 9 and 15 passengers not for direct compensation or not beyond a 75 air mile radius from the driver's normal work reporting location are subject to the following requirements
- 1. Must file Motor Carrier Identification Report
- 2. Must maintain an accident register
- 3. Must mark vehicle will the motor carrier identification number
What is a CMV
- Any self-propelled to towed motor vehicle used on a highway in interstate commerce to transport passenger or property that meets at least one of the following criteria.1. Has a gross vehicle vehicle rating, gross vehicle combination weight rating, gross vehicle weight or gross combination weight of 4,536kg (10,001 lbs) or more.
- 2. Is designed or used to transport more than 8 passengers for compensation.
- 3. Is designed or used to transport more than 15 passengers without compensation.
- 4. Is used in transporting hazardous material
Motor Carrier Responsibility
Whenever a duty is prescribed for a driver or a prohibition is imposed on a driver, it is the duty of the motor carrier to ensure compliance with that duty or prohibition.
Each motor carrier that conducts operations in interstate commerce must file a Motor Carrier Identification Report (Form MCS-150) at the following times
- Before it begins operatrions
- Every 24 months
Types of accidents to be reported by a motor carrier
- An occurrence involving a CMV operating on a public road that results in a:
- Bodily injury to a person
- disabiling damage to one or more motor vehicles
Accident registers must be maintained for one year after an accident and must contain:
- Date and location of accident
- Driver's name
- Number of injuries and fatalities
- Hazardous materials (other than fuel) released
- Other information as required.
SHOULD Vs. SHALL
- Should = Recommendation
- Shall = Do it
Assistance in Investigations - A motor carrier shall
- Make all records and information pertaining to an accident avaliable to an authorized representative of the FMCSA upon request
- Give an authorized rep of the FMCSA all reasonable assistance in the investigation of any accident including prociding a full, true and correct answer to any question of the inquiry.
Vehicle Identification - Every CMV operated by a motor carrier in interstate commerce must be marked on both sides with:
- Motor carrier's name or trade name
- city and state of its principal place of business
- motor carrier's indentification number preceded by "US DOT"
Relief from pats 390-399 of the FMCSRs may be granted during declared emergencies to any motor carrier who provides emergency assistance.
Aiding and Abetting Violations
No person shall aid, abet, encourage or require a motor carrier or its employees to violate the FMCSA rules.
Violation and Penalty
Any person who violates FMCSA regs may be subject to civil or criminal penalties
Safety Fitness and Ratings
- Safety fitness standard for motor carriers based on degree of compliance
- Motor carrier must demonstrate it has adequate safety management controls in place
- Safety requirements to reduce risk associated with:
- CDL violations
- Financial Responsibility
- Use of unqualified dirvers
- Improper use and driving of motor vehicles
- Unsafe vehicles
- Accident registers and copies of accident reports
- Use of fatigued drivers
- inadequate inspection, repair and maintenance of vehicles
- Transportation of hazardous materials, driving and parking rules
Determining Safety Ratings
- Assigned following a compliance review
- Rating issued within 30 days
Several factors to be considers for safety fitness:
- Some examplesAdequacy of safety management controls
- Frequency and severity of regulatory violations
- Frequency of accidents
- Alcohol and conrolled substance testing
- Hours of service violations
- Vehicle inspection and maintainance
- Hazardous materials violations
- Roadside vehicle out-of-service rate
- Satisfactory- Adequate safety controls in place for the size and type of operations of the motor carrier
- Conditional-Motor carrier does not have adequate safey management controls in place to ensure compliance.
- Unsatisfactory-Motor carrier does not have adequate safety management controls in place to ensure compliance as follows:
- CDL Standard violations
- Levels of financial responsibilty inadequate
- Use of unqualified drivers
- Improper use and driving of motor vehicles
- Unsafe vehicles operating on the highways
- Failure to maintain registers and copies of accident reports
- Use of Fatigued drivers
- Inadequate inspection, repair and maintenance of vehicles
Unsatisfactory rating prohibits carrier from:
- Operating commercial motor vehicle to transport hazardous materials
- Transport mor than 15 passengers
- Prohibits contracting with federal agencies
Accident investigation - Driver Responsibilities:
- Protect the Scene of the Accident
- Aid and protect injured
- Notify appropriate personnel
- Obtain and retain information at the scene
Accident/Incident investigation - Investigator Responsibilities
- Highest "Local Supervisor"...Top priority
- Go to the scene "take charge", direct activities of the driver, gather facts to supplement driver information
- Don't rely on driver information only (Lacks Experience)
- Has authority to clean up/removal and can deal with public and media
- Keep cost down and prevent additonal costs
- Expedite movement of traffic at the scene
- Preserve vital information
Searching for facts:
- Any pertinent information... contributing factors
- What happened and how did it occur
- Note and gather all physical evidence
- Have the ability to reconstruct the accident based on facts..not opinions
Tools needed for investigations:
- Measuring Tapes
- Warning devices
- Proper clothing
- Template for diagram
Steps to conduct the Investigation - Arrival at the scene
- Protective devices in place
- Who are you
- Protect injured
- Protect property from theft or further damage
- Check premises for additional hazards
- Look for physical evidence... Photographs
- Locate driver... Check oh physical and mental status (Drugs, alcohol, speech)
- Number of Vehicles
- Movement of Vehicles
- Physical Layout
- Point of impact
- Objectives of Interview
- Importance of safe driving
- Preventable non preventable
- Learning experience
- Remain calm, don't express emotions
- Keep conversations in the "First Person"
- Ask "key questions"Developed prior to interview
- Relate to the "Gray Areas"
- Get Specifics
- Take notes...record if acceptable
Accident costs - Direct
- Vehicle Damage
- Injury's cost
- Cargo Damage
- Medical Costs
- Loss of Revenue
- Admin Costs
- Police Report
- Possible effect on cost of insurance
- Towing Costs
- Storage of Damaged Vehicle
Accident Costs - Indirct or hidden cost
- Loss of Clients/Customers
- Lost Sales
- Meetings missed
- Salaries paid to employees in Accident
- Cost to hire/train replacements
- Supervisor's time
- Loss of personal property
- Replacement vehicle rental
- Damaged equipment or downtime
- Accelerated depreciation of equipment
- Accident reporting
- Medical Cost paid by company
- Poor public relations
- Government agency costs
- increased public relations costs