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What kind of energy is chemical energy?
Potential Chemical energy, stored energy within atoms or molecules
Crystalline solids are
atoms or molecules arranged in patterns with long-range, repeating order
Amorphous solids are
atoms or molecules that do not have any long-range order
submicroscopic particles that constitue the fundamental building blocks of ordinary matter
the science that seeks to understand the behavior of matter by studying the behavior of atoms and molecules.
tentative interpretation or explanation of observations
highly controlled procedures designed to generate observations
Scientific law is
a brief state that summarizes past observations and predicts furture ones. They do not define nature, but they do describe how nature behaves -- they are generalizations about what nature does. Some refer to them as principles
Law of Conservation of Mass
Antoine Lavoisier summarized it as, "in a chemical reaction, matter is neither created nor destroyed." Lavoisier observed combustion. John Dalton explained that since atoms were merely rearranged in chemical changes (neither created or destroyed), the total amount of mass would remain the same.
Scientific Theory is
a model for the way nature is and tries to explain not merely what nature does but why. They predict behavior beyond the observations or laws from which they were developed.
Developed by John Dalton (1766-1844), proposed that matter was composed of small, indestructible particles called atoms.It is a model of how the physical world works, and how nature works, and therefore explains our laws and observations.
What is the difference between Law and Theory?
A law simply summarizes a series of related observations, while a theory gives the underlying reasons for them.
anything that occupies space and has mass.
States of matter are
- solid -- packed close to each other in fixed locations. They vibrate but do not move or pass each other. Has fixed volume and rigid shape.
- liquid -- packed about as closely as they do in solid, but are free to move relative to each other. Has fixed volume, but not fixed shape.
- gases -- contain spaces between them and are free to move relative to one another, making it COMPRESSIBLE. Always assume the shape and volume of container.
Composition of Matter are
- Pure substances -- composed of single type of atom or molecule.
- mixtures -- substance composed of two or more different types of atoms or molecules that can be combined in variable proportions.
Physical ( Property / Changes )
- Properties is one that a substances display without changing its composition
- Changes that alder only state or appearance, but not composition
Chemical ( Property / Change )
- Property is one that substance displays only by changing its composition via a chemical change
- Changes that alter the composition of matter, where atoms rearrange, transform, etc
the capacity to do work
the action of a force through a distance
Total energy is the sum of
- Kinetic energy -- energy associated with motion
- Potential energy -- energy associated with its position or composition
Thermal energy is
the energy associated with the temperature of an object. It is a type of kinetic energy.
Law of Conservation of Energy is
the observation that energy is neither created nor destroyed. Energy can change and flow, but the total quantity does not change.
The tendency of systems with high potential energy (unstable) to change in a way that lowers their potential energy(stable). E.x. Chemical potential energy
Units in Chemistry are
standard quantities used to specify Measurements
Metric System is also called the
unit system used by scientists called International System of Units (SI), E.x. cm, m, kg
e.x. inches, yards, pounds
Measure of Temperatures are
- Kelvin (K), SI unit of Temperature. Measures the amount of average kinetic energy of atoms or molecules that compose the matter. Starts at 0 KCelsius, Starts at -273 C
- Fahrenheit, Starts at -459 F
Intensive Properties are
those that are independent of the amount of you have. E.x. density,
Extensive Properties are
ones that depend on the amount of substance you have, E.x. mass
The Greater the Significant Digits (numbers) the ______ the Certainty
The Greater the Significant Digits (numbers) the Greater the Certainty
Accuracy vs Precision
- Accuracy refers to how close the measured value is
- Precision refers to how close a series of measurements are to one another or how reproducible they are.
Dimensional Analysis is when
you use units as a guide to solving problems.
How does Distillation work? Filtration?
Distillations is where a mixture is heated to boil off the more volatile( easily vaporizable) liquid. Then that volatile liquid is re-condensed in a condenser and collected in a separate flask
Filtration is where the mixture is poured through filter paper usually held in a funnel
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