Geology Test #2

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Geology Test #2
2010-10-06 01:38:59
Geology Earth Science glaciers plate tectonics Earthquake Volcano mountain building

Ch 6-10
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  1. A name commonly used as a synonym for the Ice Age is ________
    Pleistocene epoch
  2. A ______ cross-valley profile is typical of canyons and valleys eroded and deepened by alpine or valley glaciers.
  3. A sheet of ice that covers a large land mass such as a continent is called _____
    Continental glacier
  4. T or F:

    Despite infrequent rainfalls, eronsional and depositional features of running water are important in desert landscapes.
  5. Desert pavement is the result of ______
  6. During the most recent glaciers covered about _____ percent of Earth's land area.
  7. Ice Age glaciers had many indirect effects. Which one of the following was NOT such an effect?
    formation of mountains
  8. Which process occurs where a glacier enters the sea?
  9. The Basin and Range region of the western US is an excellent example of a mountainous desert landscape.
  10. The current theory concerning the cause of the Ice Ages includes which of the following.
    • a. A change in earth's orbit from elliptical to circular.
    • b. A change in the degree of Earth's tilt on its axis

  11. In the early part of the 20 century, ______ argued forcefully for continental drift
    Alfred Wegener
  12. The former late Paleozoic super continent is known as ______
  13. The _____ is an example of an active, continent-continent collision.
    northward movement of India into Eurasia
  14. Pull-apart rift zones are generally associated with a _____ plate boundary.
  15. A very long-lived magma source located deep in the mantle is called a _____
    hot spot
  16. Which of the following energy sources is thought to drive the lateral motions of earth's lithospheric plates?
    export of heat from deep in the mantle to the tope of the asthenosphere
  17. The continental drift hypothesis was rejected primarily becuase Alfred Wegener could not ______
    identify a mechanism capable of moving continents
  18. All of the following are evidence supporting the theory of plate tectonics except for ______
    changes in the Moon's orbit due to shifting plates
  19. New Oceanic crust and lithosphere are formed at ______
    divergent boundaries by submarine eruptions and intrusions of basaltic magma
  20. Deep ocean trenches are surficial evidence for ____
    Sinking of oceanic lithosphere into the mantle at a subduction zone.
  21. A transform plate boundary is characterized by _______
    a deep, vertical fault along which two plates slide past one another in opposite directions
  22. Which one of the following is an improtant fundamental assumption underlying the plate tectonic theory?
    Earth's diameter has been essentially constant over time
  23. When an earthquake occurs, energy radiates in all directions from its source. The source is also referred to as the _____
  24. Which one of the following statements is correct?
    S waves travel through solids and P waves travel through liquids
  25. Major earthquakes are often followed by somewhat smaller events known as ____
  26. The position on the Earth's surface directly above the earthquake source is called the
  27. Overall, this type of seismic wave is most destructive ______
    surface wave
  28. Which of the following best characterizes tsunamis?
    They have relatively small amplitudes compared to their very long wavelengths
  29. ____ refers to the tendency for a foundation material to lose its internal cohesion and fail mechanically during earthquake shaking
  30. most of our knowledge about Earth's interior comes from _____
    seismic waves
  31. The Earth's magnetic field originates by ____
    weak electrical currents associate with fluid motions in the outer core
  32. Earthquake zones are closely correlated with ____
    plate boundaries
  33. The oceanic crust is _____ in composition
  34. Our understanding of the earth's core comes from ____
  35. Which type of basaltic lava flow has a fairly smooth, unfragmented, ropy surface?
  36. ______ is a major dissolved volatile consituent in both magma and volcanic gases
  37. The _____ ocean basin is rimmed by the most subduction zones
  38. Cinder cones ______
    • a. have very steep slopes
    • b. are usually less than 300 meters (1000 ft) high
    • c. consist largely of pyroclastics
    • d. All of these
  39. The most violent volcanic activity is associated with ______
    composite cones
  40. Kilauea is an example of a
    shield volcano
  41. _____ are usually the abundant gases emitted furing basaltic volcanism.
    water and carbon dioxide
  42. Magma tends to rise toward Earth's surface principally because
    rocks become less dense when they melt
  43. Mt St Helens is ___
    an explosive stratovolcano
  44. A _______ volcano is a very large, gently sloping mound composed mainly of basaltic lava flows
  45. A ______ volcano is a very large, gently sloping mound composed mainly of basaltic lava flows
  46. Most of the active volcanoes of Earth are located in a belt known as the ______
    Ring of Fire
  47. T or F:
    Ash and Lapilli are different sized pyroclastic particles.
  48. Factors that influence the strength of a rock include ____
    • a. temp and pressure
    • b. long periods of time
    • c. type of rock
    • d. all of these
  49. An anticline is where a stratum has _____
  50. Faults are ____ in rocks along which appreciable displacement has taken place.
  51. A large strike-slip fault that cuts throught he lithosphere is a ____ fault
  52. The processes that collectively produce a mountain belt are called ______
  53. The Andes Mountains are an example of mountain building along a _____
    continental margin
  54. Island-arc mountain building occurs along _______
    convergent zones
  55. Terranes are accreted crustal blocks that collide with contiental margins. At one time the terranes may have been _____
  56. Fault-block mountains are cause by uplifted normal faults. An example of this type of mountain building is ____
    Grand Tetons
  57. Crustal uplift is caused by ____
    • a. intrusion of plutons
    • b. gravitational balance of the crust
    • c. removal of weight from the crust
    • d. all of these