Geology Test #2
Card Set Information
Geology Test #2
Geology Earth Science glaciers plate tectonics Earthquake Volcano mountain building
A name commonly used as a synonym for the Ice Age is ________
A ______ cross-valley profile is typical of canyons and valleys eroded and deepened by alpine or valley glaciers.
A sheet of ice that covers a large land mass such as a continent is called _____
T or F:
Despite infrequent rainfalls, eronsional and depositional features of running water are important in desert landscapes.
Desert pavement is the result of ______
During the most recent glaciers covered about _____ percent of Earth's land area.
Ice Age glaciers had many indirect effects. Which one of the following was NOT such an effect?
formation of mountains
Which process occurs where a glacier enters the sea?
The Basin and Range region of the western US is an excellent example of a mountainous desert landscape.
The current theory concerning the cause of the Ice Ages includes which of the following.
a. A change in earth's orbit from elliptical to circular.
b. A change in the degree of Earth's tilt on its axis
In the early part of the 20 century, ______ argued forcefully for continental drift
The former late Paleozoic super continent is known as ______
The _____ is an example of an active, continent-continent collision.
northward movement of India into Eurasia
Pull-apart rift zones are generally associated with a _____ plate boundary.
A very long-lived magma source located deep in the mantle is called a _____
Which of the following energy sources is thought to drive the lateral motions of earth's lithospheric plates?
export of heat from deep in the mantle to the tope of the asthenosphere
The continental drift hypothesis was rejected primarily becuase Alfred Wegener could not ______
identify a mechanism capable of moving continents
All of the following are evidence supporting the theory of plate tectonics except for ______
changes in the Moon's orbit due to shifting plates
New Oceanic crust and lithosphere are formed at ______
divergent boundaries by submarine eruptions and intrusions of basaltic magma
Deep ocean trenches are surficial evidence for ____
Sinking of oceanic lithosphere into the mantle at a subduction zone.
A transform plate boundary is characterized by _______
a deep, vertical fault along which two plates slide past one another in opposite directions
Which one of the following is an improtant fundamental assumption underlying the plate tectonic theory?
Earth's diameter has been essentially constant over time
When an earthquake occurs, energy radiates in all directions from its source. The source is also referred to as the _____
Which one of the following statements is correct?
S waves travel through solids and P waves travel through liquids
Major earthquakes are often followed by somewhat smaller events known as ____
The position on the Earth's surface directly above the earthquake source is called the
Overall, this type of seismic wave is most destructive ______
Which of the following best characterizes tsunamis?
They have relatively small amplitudes compared to their very long wavelengths
____ refers to the tendency for a foundation material to lose its internal cohesion and fail mechanically during earthquake shaking
most of our knowledge about Earth's interior comes from _____
The Earth's magnetic field originates by ____
weak electrical currents associate with fluid motions in the outer core
Earthquake zones are closely correlated with ____
The oceanic crust is _____ in composition
Our understanding of the earth's core comes from ____
Which type of basaltic lava flow has a fairly smooth, unfragmented, ropy surface?
______ is a major dissolved volatile consituent in both magma and volcanic gases
The _____ ocean basin is rimmed by the most subduction zones
Cinder cones ______
a. have very steep slopes
b. are usually less than 300 meters (1000 ft) high
c. consist largely of pyroclastics
d. All of these
The most violent volcanic activity is associated with ______
Kilauea is an example of a
_____ are usually the abundant gases emitted furing basaltic volcanism.
water and carbon dioxide
Magma tends to rise toward Earth's surface principally because
rocks become less dense when they melt
Mt St Helens is ___
an explosive stratovolcano
A _______ volcano is a very large, gently sloping mound composed mainly of basaltic lava flows
A ______ volcano is a very large, gently sloping mound composed mainly of basaltic lava flows
Most of the active volcanoes of Earth are located in a belt known as the ______
Ring of Fire
T or F:
Ash and Lapilli are different sized pyroclastic particles.
Factors that influence the strength of a rock include ____
a. temp and pressure
b. long periods of time
c. type of rock
d. all of these
An anticline is where a stratum has _____
Faults are ____ in rocks along which appreciable displacement has taken place.
A large strike-slip fault that cuts throught he lithosphere is a ____ fault
The processes that collectively produce a mountain belt are called ______
The Andes Mountains are an example of mountain building along a _____
Island-arc mountain building occurs along _______
Terranes are accreted crustal blocks that collide with contiental margins. At one time the terranes may have been _____
Fault-block mountains are cause by uplifted normal faults. An example of this type of mountain building is ____
Crustal uplift is caused by ____
a. intrusion of plutons
b. gravitational balance of the crust
c. removal of weight from the crust
d. all of these