Bio Test 1

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brendanbui
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40125
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Bio Test 1
Updated:
2010-10-06 03:43:11
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Lineages Phylogenetic Tree Eras
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For studying for Delwiche bio test 1
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  1. Coleochaetes
    • - Green Algae
    • - more advanced than Red Algae and ulvophytes

    • - freshwater algae
    • - plasmodesmata
  2. Ulvophytes
    • - Green Algae
    • - more advanced than red algae

    - like sea lettuce
  3. Stoneworts (Charapyceae)
    • - Green algae
    • - more advanced than red algae, coleochates, and ulvophytes
    • - accumulate CaCO3 on surfaces

    • - plasmodesmata
    • - freshwater algae (shallower areas)
  4. Bryophata (Mosses)
    • - Nonvascular plants (Land plants)
    • - more advanced than liverworts/hornworts
    • - can live in extreme conditions
    • - use rhizoids to stay attached

    -mostly in gametophyte stage
  5. Liverworts
    • - Nonvascular plant (Land plant)
    • - most basic in this group
    • - covered with cuticle

    - mostly in gametophyte stage
  6. Hornworts
    • - Nonvascular plant (land plant)
    • - more advanced than liverworts
    • - have stomata

    - mostly in gametophyte stage
  7. Lycophytes (ground pines, club mosses)
    • - Seedless Vascular plants
    • - basal species
    • - land plant with ROOTS (helps to conduct water/nutrients)
    • - small, close to ground and has spiky stuff

    - mostly in sporophyte stage
  8. Whisk Ferns
    • - Seedless vascular plant
    • - more advanced than lycophytes
    • - lack roots (get it from rhizomes - underground stems - or epiphytes - on other plants)
  9. Horsetails
    • - Seedless vascular plant
    • - more advanced than lycophytes and whisk ferns
    • - in stream banks and marsh edges

    • - can flourish in oxygen-poor soils
    • - hollow reed-like structure... O2 diffuses down stem to roots
  10. Ferns
    • - Seedless vascular plants
    • - more advanced than lycophytes, whisk ferns, and horsetails
    • - large, well-developed leaves (called fronds) --> capture sunlight more effectively
    • - sporophyte dominant phase

    - fern sporangia located underneath fronds
  11. Cycads
    • - Gymnosperm (Seed plant)
    • - most basal
    • - look like palm trees, compound leaves (leaf divided into leaflets)
    • - heterosporous (micro or megasporangia)
    • - use pollen
  12. Ginkgos
    • - Gymnosperms (Seed plants)
    • - more advanced than Cycads
    • - deciduous... dormant during the winter
    • - heterosporous
    • - use pollen
  13. Gnetophytes
    • - Gymnosperms (seed plants)
    • - more advanced than cycads and ginkgos
    • - bizarre structure (two large leaves that continuously grow at ends)

    • - micro/megasporangia in clusters at end of stalks
    • - pollen through the air
  14. Pinophyta (pines, spruces, firs)
    • - Gymnosperms (Seed plants)
    • - more advanced than cycads, ginkgos, gnetophytes
    • - needle-like leaves
  15. Anthophyta (angiosperms)
    • - angiosperms
    • - most common plant on land
    • - contain tracheids and vessel elements
    • - carpel (ovary) and stamen (anther and sperm)
  16. mycorrhizal
    fungal root that helps plants grow faster
  17. saprophyte
    digest dead plant material
  18. peat
    build up of dead plant material
  19. Precambrian Era
    • - 4.6 bya
    • - Earth forms
    • - life begins
  20. Paleozoic Era
    • - 542 mya
    • - many animal lineages appear
  21. Hadeon Eon
    creation of Earth/solar system (4.5bya)
  22. Archaean Eon
    origins of life (3.8bya)
  23. Proterozoic Eon
    oxygen in atmosphere, beginnings of multicellular life (2.5bya)
  24. Cambrian Period
    explosion of life, like algae and more marine invertebrates (542mya)
  25. Ordvician Period
    Echinoderms - sea stars/urchins (488mya)
  26. Devonian Period
    upland plant communities, diversify fish (416mya)
  27. Carboniferious Period
    insects diversify, swamps (make coal)

    (359mya)
  28. Permian Era
    coal forming swamps diminish - ends with mass extinction

    (300mya)
  29. Mesozoic Era
    Age of the reptiles (250mya)
  30. Triassic Period
    gymnosperms dominant land plants, dinosaurs

    (250mya)
  31. Jurassic Period
    first mammals and angiosperms, dinosaurs still the head animal

    (200mya)
  32. Cretaceous Period
    Dinosaurs and angiosperms diversify

    (145mya)
  33. Cenozoic Era
    Age of Mammals (65.5mya)
  34. First animals on Earth?
    cyanobacteria and algae
  35. What 3 fossils represent almost all the modern day lineages?
    Burgess shale fauna, Ediacara fauna, Doushantuo fossils
  36. New genes, new bodies hypothesis
    gene duplication (during Cambrian era) led to new copies of existing homeoitic genes (defines type of structure cell will become)
  37. Fats
    comprised of 3 fatty acids linked to 3 carbon molecule called glycerol (through ester linkage)
  38. Phospholipid
    ampipathic compound, comprises membranes
  39. Liposomes
    artificial membrane-bound vesicles
  40. Hypertonic
    sol'n outside has more solutes, water will flow out
  41. Hypotonic
    sol'n outside has less solute, become engorged with water
  42. Fluid mosaic model
    moving membrane with membrane proteins interspersed
  43. Synapomorphy
    traits that define a single group
  44. Phenetic approach
    using statistic (like DNA) to compare similarities
  45. Cladistic approach
    using relationships built off shared derived characterrs
  46. Homoplasy
    traits similar due to other pressuring force
  47. Types of fossils
    intact, compression, cast, permineralized fossil
  48. When did the dinosaurs die?
    end of the cretaceous period due to meteor (we know this due to iridium deposits and shocked quartz)
  49. Bacteria vs. Archaea
    have circular chromosomes, spin propellor flagella (but molecular comp different), single celled
  50. Pathogenic
    causes infections
  51. Koch's postulates
    • - Microbes only exist in sick people
    • - organism grown in separate culture
    • - if organism injected to healthy animal, it should get sick
    • - org. tested again
  52. bioremediation
    using bacteria to help clean up pollution
  53. Direct sequencing
    collecting sample from habitat, DNA purified and PCR used to multiply gene
  54. Main divisions of Archaea? (what do they love...)
    • halophiles (salt)
    • sulfate reducers
    • methanogens
    • thermophiles (heat)
  55. Gram stain
    helps identify type of cell wall in bacteria

    • (+) membrane surrounded by cell wall w/ peptidoglycan
    • (-) membrane surrounded by thin gel layer w/ peptidoglycan and phospholipid bilayer
  56. Chemolithotrophs
    oxidize INorganic material
  57. Chemoorganotroph
    oxidize organic material
  58. What does oxygenic photosynthesis use for source of e-?
    water
  59. Anoxygenic photosynthesis
    uses iron
  60. Eukarya Lineages (in order)
    • Excavata (excavated groove on one side of cell, no mitochondria)
    • Discicristata (mitochondria, with disc-shaped cristae)
    • Alveolate (alveoli that form layer under membrane)
    • Strameopila (flagella covered in hairlike projections)
    • Rhizaria (shell-like covering)
    • Plantae (chloroplasts with double membrane)
    • Opisthokonta (mitochondria cristae flat, single flagellum at base)
    • Amoebozoa (no cell walls, form lobes when moving/extending outward)
  61. Firmicute
    • - Bacteria
    • - most basal
    • - rod/spherical shaped
  62. Spirochetes
    • - Bacteria
    • - more advanced than firmicutes
    • - corkscrew shape (spiral)
  63. Actinobacteria
    • - Bacteria
    • - more advanced than firmicutes, same as spirochetes and chlamydiales
    • - form branching filaments called mycelia
  64. Cyanobacteria
    • - Bacteria
    • - more advanced than firmicutes, spirochetes, actinobacteria, and chlamydiales
    • - photosynthesis
  65. Chlamydiales
    • - Bacteria
    • - more advanced than firmicutes, same as spirochetes and actinobacteria
    • - all are endosymbionts within other organisms
  66. Proteobacteria
    • - Bacteria
    • - more advanced than firmicutes, spirochetes/actinobacteria/chlamydiales
    • - very diverse group
  67. Crenarchaeota
    • - Archaea
    • - more basal
    • - lives in extreme environments
  68. Euryarchaeota
    • - Archaea
    • - live in almost every single habitat known
    • - all different shapes
  69. Paraphyletic
    no single synapomorphy
  70. Plasmodium
    • - Protist
    • - evolves very quickly (causes malaria)
  71. Dinoflagellates
    • - Protists
    • - Cause red tides during algae blooms
  72. Phytoplankton
    • - Protist
    • - primary producer
  73. What are some themes in the diversification of protists?
    • - nuclear envelope formed by infolding of membrane
    • - cell walls or tests/shells
    • - multicellularity
  74. Ingestive feeding
    engulf bacteria
  75. Absorptive feeding
    absorb from environment
  76. Photosynthesis
    stolen ability from cyanobacteria, produce energy from light
  77. Virus
    dependent, intracellular parasite (not considered living)

    must be inside of a host to operate
  78. Bacteriophage
    virus that infects bacteria
  79. Epidemic
    affects large group of people over widening area
  80. Pandemic
    epidemic that reached worldwide proportions
  81. AIDS
    acquired immune deficiency syndrome... caused by HIV
  82. HIV
    human immunodeficiency virus

    affects helper T cells and macrophages
  83. capsid
    enclosed shell of proteins
  84. enveloped virus
    capsid is wrapped in extra membrane
  85. Latency
    when virus infects animal and then becomes a part of the chromosome
  86. Lysogenic cycle
    when virus takes over cell and then breaks out of cell to produce more cells
  87. Phases of Replicative Cycle for Viruses
    • 1. entry
    • 2. production and processing of viral protein
    • 3. genome replication
    • 4. virions assembly
    • 5. exit cell
    • 6. transmission to new host
  88. What is the origin of a virus?
    "escaped gene sets" that remembered how to replicate

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