Body Systems

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Author:
poppingcorn
ID:
40130
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Body Systems
Updated:
2010-10-08 23:25:14
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Reproduction Reproduction Body System
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  1. 1. Recall that when cells divide they transfer genetic information to daughter cells
    When cells divide they transfer genetic information to daughter cells
  2. 2. Explain that cells divide in two ways
    • Mitosis - Growth & Repair
    • Meiosis - Formation of gametes
  3. 3. Describe some methods of asexual reproduction:
    Binary fission, Budding, Spores Runners, Bulbs, Tubers
  4. 4. Recall that cancer is caused by uncontrolled cell division
    Cancer is caused by the uncontrolled cell divison
  5. 5. a) Label a diagram of the male and female reproductive systems and describe the functions of each part.
  6. 5. a) Label a diagram of the male and female reproductive systems and describe the functions of each part
  7. 6. Summarise the processes that take place during the conception and development of a human baby.
    Ovulation – this is the process of egg release from an ovary, it occurs about every 28 days.

    The eggs transported through the fallopian tube to the uterus. If the egg is not fertilised by sperm, it will pass out of the body in the menstruation.

    This blood flow lasts about 4-5 days due to the breakdown of the thickened lining of the uterus. This lining regrows in the next cycle.

    If the egg is fertilised by a sperm in the Fallopian tube, it will begin to divide into a ball of cells. This ball of cells takes 8 days to travel into the uterus where it becomes implanted in the uterine wall. The pregnancy has begun.

    The developing embryo is connected to its mother by the placenta. The umbilical cord is an extension of the placenta.

    Nutrients and oxygen pass across the placentas to the developing embryo.

    • Wastes pass the other way and are eliminated by the mother. The blood of the mother and the baby never mix.
    • From 8 weeks until its birth, the fetus grows and matures.

    When the baby is mature it is expelled from the uterus by strong muscular contractions. It passes through the vagina and is born. This normally occurs 270 days after fertilisation.
  8. 7. Explain the advantages and disadvantages of sexual and asexual reproduction
    • Large chance of evolution taking place
    • Better adapted, lower chance of extinction
    • Lowered chance of disease due to mixed gametes
  9. 7. Explain the advantages and disadvantages of sexual and asexual reproduction
    Only the females can mate (half the population)

    Two parents have to be involved

    Trying to find a mate

    No grantee that offspring will be born
  10. 7. Explain the advantages and disadvantages of sexual and asexual reproduction
    Only one parent is needed

    Large guarantee that an offspring will be born

    Short period of time
  11. 7. Explain the advantages and disadvantages of sexual and asexual reproduction
    No chance of evolution happening

    The offspring will be identical to parents, so diseases and bad qualities are passed down
  12. 8. Learn that there are two systems (endocrine and nervous) that coordinate body functioning
    There are two systems (endocrine and nervous) that coordinate body functioning

    Endocrine - The endocrine system is made up of glands that secrete chemicals called 'hormones' into the bloodstream. Together with the nervous system and the immune system, the endocrine system helps the body to cope with different events and stresses. Glands of the endocrine system include the pituitary gland, thyroid gland, parathyroid gland, adrenal glands, pancreas, ovaries and testes.

    Nervous - The nervous system helps all the parts of the body to communicate with each other. The brain and spinal cord make up the central nervous system.
  13. 9. Describe the role of co-ordination systems in humans
    All the systems work simultaneously in a co-ordinated manner to keep the body alive

    Example
  14. 10. Define endocrine and hormone
    Endocrine:

    Cell signaling performed by the secretion of chemicals which are carried by the blood and tissue fluids to target cells.
  15. 10. Define endocrine and hormone
    Hormone:

    A chemical substance produced in the body that controls and regulates the activity of certain cells or organs.
  16. 11. Label a diagram showing the location of the main endocrine glands – pituitary, thyroid, pancreas, adrenal, ovaries and testes
  17. 12. State the hormone produced and the main function of hormones produced by the above glands
  18. 13. Identify that the nervous system consists of the central nervous system and the peripheral nervous system
  19. 14. Identify that the neurone is the basic unit of the nervous system
  20. 15. Recall and describe the basic components of the nervous system – receptor, sensory neurone, interneuron, motor neurone and effector
  21. 16. Recall that a reflex action is produced by a reflex arc
  22. 17. Recall that reflex actions are involuntary and have a protective role
  23. 18. Describe two examples of interaction between the two coordination systems

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