chapter 4 Enlightment and American Revolution.txt
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Progress and Reason:
Scientific succeses convinced educated Europeans of the power of Human Reason
Laws that governed human nature
Agreement by which they gave up the sate of nature for an organized society
- Optimistic view of human nature
- Natural Rights: Rights for all humans
- Believed that humans were born with a blank mind and that they became evil.
Argued that people were naturally cruel greedy and selfish.
- Created the 3 branches of government:
- Legislative, judicial, executive
Lovers of wisdom:
Women of the enlightenment:
restricting ideas and information
Informal social gatherings of writers, authors, poets, artists and philosphes to exchange ideas.
absolute rulers who used their power to bring about political and social change.
Frederick the great:
king of Prussia. tolerated religion, reorganized civil service and simplified laws.
Catherine the Great:
her contribution to Russia was not reform but an expanded empire.
son and successor of Maria Theresa. build hospitals, ended censorship and serfdom.
were huge, colorful and exciting.
personal, elegant and charming.
people saw ballet accompanied by opera. Oper was only sang on royal court.
there was more novels and long works of prose fiction.
What influences rose Britain to global power?
- -Geography (location because they could control trade)
- -Success in War (they were winning side of Europe and monopolized slave trade in Spanish America)
- -Favorable Climate
- -Union with Scotland
- -had power over ireland
government whose power is defines and limited by law. Includes the Magna Carta and Bill of Rights
two new political parties arose the Tories and the Whigs
landed aristocrats whosuported broad royal powers and sominant anglican church
Whigs: religious toleration, favor parliament over the crown.
was madee up of the leaders of the House of Commons and a prime minister who was the head of the cabinet.
government ruled by a few.
The 13 colonies:
governement and society was dominated by wealthy landowners and merchants. free discussions. Colonists had the same rights as eglish citizens.
- -Parliament passed new laws to increase taxes paid by the colonies snd colonists protested because they had no representation
- -Boston tea party: when angry colonists threw tea to boston harbor
- -Boston massacre: when 5 protestants were murdered
they held a continental congress to decide what action to take. war started to declare independence formt the british with george washington in command. They did not lose their hopes and held a second congress and thomas jefferson wrote the declaration of independence whcih was adopted by american leader on july 4 1776.
The American Revolution:
Loyalists supported britain and France allied with America. Helped by French flees, Americans forced surrender of britain troops. After 2 yearse, france, Britiain and America signed the treaty of paris that said the war had ended.
The contitution created it to divide power between the federal or national, government and the states.
Bill of rights:
recognized the idea that people had basic rights.(freedom of speech, religion and press)
most americans still do not have the right to vote.
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