chapter 4 Enlightment and American Revolution.txt

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chapter 4 Enlightment and American Revolution.txt
2010-01-10 23:55:00

enlightmen and american revolution
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  1. Progress and Reason:
    Scientific succeses convinced educated Europeans of the power of Human Reason
  2. Natural Laws:
    Laws that governed human nature
  3. Social Contract:
    Agreement by which they gave up the sate of nature for an organized society
  4. John Locke:
    • Optimistic view of human nature
    • Natural Rights: Rights for all humans
    • Believed that humans were born with a blank mind and that they became evil.
  5. Thomas Hobbes:
    Argued that people were naturally cruel greedy and selfish.
  6. Montesquie:
    • Created the 3 branches of government:
    • Legislative, judicial, executive
  7. Philosophe:
    Lovers of wisdom:
  8. Women of the enlightenment:
    Natural Rights
  9. censorship:
    restricting ideas and information
  10. Salons:
    Informal social gatherings of writers, authors, poets, artists and philosphes to exchange ideas.
  11. enlightened despots:
    absolute rulers who used their power to bring about political and social change.
  12. Frederick the great:
    king of Prussia. tolerated religion, reorganized civil service and simplified laws.
  13. Catherine the Great:
    her contribution to Russia was not reform but an expanded empire.
  14. Joseph II:
    son and successor of Maria Theresa. build hospitals, ended censorship and serfdom.
  15. Baroque Art:
    were huge, colorful and exciting.
  16. Rococo Art:
    personal, elegant and charming.
  17. Music:
    people saw ballet accompanied by opera. Oper was only sang on royal court.
  18. The novel:
    there was more novels and long works of prose fiction.
  19. What influences rose Britain to global power?
    • -Geography (location because they could control trade)
    • -Success in War (they were winning side of Europe and monopolized slave trade in Spanish America)
    • -Favorable Climate
    • -Union with Scotland
    • -had power over ireland
  20. Constitutional Government:
    government whose power is defines and limited by law. Includes the Magna Carta and Bill of Rights
  21. Political Parites:
    two new political parties arose the Tories and the Whigs
  22. Tories:
    landed aristocrats whosuported broad royal powers and sominant anglican church
  23. Whigs: religious toleration, favor parliament over the crown.
  24. Cabinet system:
    was madee up of the leaders of the House of Commons and a prime minister who was the head of the cabinet.
  25. Oligarchy:
    government ruled by a few.
  26. The 13 colonies:
    governement and society was dominated by wealthy landowners and merchants. free discussions. Colonists had the same rights as eglish citizens.
  27. Growing Discontent:
    • -Parliament passed new laws to increase taxes paid by the colonies snd colonists protested because they had no representation
    • -Boston tea party: when angry colonists threw tea to boston harbor
    • -Boston massacre: when 5 protestants were murdered
  28. C. Congress:
    they held a continental congress to decide what action to take. war started to declare independence formt the british with george washington in command. They did not lose their hopes and held a second congress and thomas jefferson wrote the declaration of independence whcih was adopted by american leader on july 4 1776.
  29. The American Revolution:
    Loyalists supported britain and France allied with America. Helped by French flees, Americans forced surrender of britain troops. After 2 yearse, france, Britiain and America signed the treaty of paris that said the war had ended.
  30. federal republic:
    The contitution created it to divide power between the federal or national, government and the states.
  31. Bill of rights:
    recognized the idea that people had basic rights.(freedom of speech, religion and press)
  32. Limited Freedoms:
    most americans still do not have the right to vote.