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Classical Conditioning is
a type of learning where a stimulus causes a response that was orginally cause by another stimulue
Is classical conditioning voluntary or involuntary?
Who was the Russian scientist that discovered the principle of classical conditioning and what was it?
- Ivan Pavlov
- dogs salivating right before food was placed in their mouths
Classical conditioning can also be considered...
The conditioned stimulus (CS) (tone) come from
the neutral stimulus (NS) (tone)
An unconditioned stimulus (US) (meat powder) always elicits
an unconditioned response (UR) (salivation)
A conditioned stimulus (CS) (tone) always elicits a
a conditioned response (CR) (salivation)
In classical conditioning does the stimulus come before or after the response (behavior)?
Before stimulus then response
The behavior is _________ by the stimulus.
The response is like many other emotional responses...it is a
The major difference between a CS (tone) and a UCS (meat powder) is that the UCS
elicits the response of interest PRIOR to conditioning while CS does not
How is classical conditioning used in advertising and how do it affect us? Give an example
Advertisers pair their products with celebrities, attractive people etc. hoping that it will cause their products to make people have good feelings. Ex. Virginia Slims influences women smokers; Teenage mutant ninja turtles tv shows, they are put on sneakers and clothes making kids wanting to buy them
How are phobias and classical conditioning related? Give an example
- people's phobias are usually traced back to something terrible they experience when they were young. When they see the "something" later on it will trigger their fear automatically.
- Ex. A girl upset her father when she was young and he hung her out the window of a 9th story building to punish her. She is now grown up and terrified of windows.
A girl upset her father when she was young and he hung her out the
window of a 9th story building to punish her. She is now grown up and
terrified of windows. Explain what it the NS, CS, CR, UCS, and UCR
- NS - window...there was no reaction before this incident
- UCS - hanging out the window > UCR - fear of falling
- CS - window > CR - fear of falling
- the process in which a response was acquired through a pairing of the CS with and UCS
- gradual approach
- CS bell > UCS food = salivation
Acquisition is forming a new response give an example
- with dogs...
- CS ring the bell > UCS give the dog food = dog salivates to bell b/c he thinks he will get food
- over a number of trials the dogs salivation will level out b/c he knows that when the bell is rung he will get food so he salivates.
Extiniction is the weakening of a conditioned response give an example
- with dogs...
- remove the UCS food and only ring the bell CS for a period of time the dog will eventually stops salivating to the sound of the bell b/c he is not getting any food.
- ring the bell but no meat, ring the bell but no meat, etc and eventually the salivating will stop when the bell is rung.
Spontaneous Recovery refers to the reappearance of a response that was was extinct after a period of nonexposure to the CS (the bell) give an example
- in dogs...
- the CS the bell will cause salivation in the dog after a period of not hearing it. The CS will not disappear all of a sudden.
- When the dog hears the bell (CS) he thinks he will be getting food and starts salivating.
Once a person or animal has learned, through classical conditioning, a response to a specific stimulus, they will respond in the same way to something that is similar to the original stimulus. What is this called? Give an example
- Stimulus generalization
- Little Albert > was conditioned to fear rats, he showed fear towards similar objects, all furry in nature.
What is Operant Conditioning?
learning in which responses are controlled by their consequences!
Is operant conditioning voluntary or involuntary?
Who discovered operant conditioning?
B. F. Skinner
Operant conditioning is all a matter of
According to Skinner, if a voluntary behavior leads to a good result the behavior is more likely to...
Give an example of operant conditioning
- If you speed >you get a speeding ticket
- If you get a good grade on a test > your parents will give you $
A stimulus is a _________ if it _________ the _________.
Acquisition and shaping in Operant conditioning is when... (give an example)
- a reinforcer is given to shape to behavior of a desired response.
- Teaching a dog to sit: Tell him to sit, when he doesn't push his back end down until he sits, then give him a treat. REPEAT this until he does it on his own. Still give him the treat for obeying.
Extinction in operative conditioning is when...
you take away the reinforcer and eventually the behavior disappears.
A stimulus is a __________.
A reinforcer increases or decreases the behavior?
Intermittent reinforcement is based on
a fixed schedule of reinforcement
A fixed ratio or fixed interval will produce ______ _______ to ________, b/c the person can predict when the next reward will be.
lower resistance to extinction
A variable ratio or variable interval will produce _______ _______ to ________, b/c the person cannot predict when the next reward will be given.
higher resistance to extinction
Both positive and negative reinforcers...
Punishment does what with behaviors?
A positive reinforcer is anything _______ given to someone.
A negative reinforcer is anything ________ taken away from someone. And it ________
Punishment is ________ someone something ________ for a behavior done that was wrong.
Give an example of a positive reinforcement
- Praising someone with a thank you or good job after getting you your slippers.
- Giving a child a lollipop for being good in the store
Give an example of a negative reinforcer
- Have good behavior in prison and get early parole.
- Get an A on a test and your parents dont make you take out the trash
Give an example of a punishment
- Speed and you will get a speeding ticket.
- Misbehave at home and your parents will take away your cell phone or computer
Observational Learning is
to learn by observing others behaviors
Give an example of observational learning
- You see a plane crash and people die, you do not want to fly in a plane b/c you think it might happen to you.
- You wish to be a comic so you observe comics at an open mic night
What is the order of basic memory processes?
Encoding > Storage > Retrieval
What is the role of attention in encoding?
more attention to detail the more memory you have of it
What is encoding in memory?
getting information into memory
What are the levels of processing in encoding?
Structural encoding is
- just looking at the structure
- poor memory
What are 2 ways yuo can enrich encoding?
- visual imagery
What is elaboration of enriching encoding?
- linking new information to old
- Ex. meet someone new, link their name to someone you already know (sibling, friend)
What is visual imagery of enriching encoding?
using images to represent the things to be remembered
What is encoding format, capacity, and duration of sensory memory?
- copy of input
- 250 msec (1/4 sec)
What is the encoding format, capacity, and duration of STM (short-term memory)?
- largely phonetic
- 7 (+/- 2 units)
- 20-30 sec
What is the encoding format, capacity, and duration of LTM (long-term memory)?
- largely semantic
Short term memory is often referred to as
What is chunking?
- random pieces of info grouped according to a rule
- associated with STM
What are flashbulb memories in LTM?
- you recall a certain memorable event from the past
- where you were, what you were doing, how you felt?
- Ex. 9/11
In LTM knowledge is represented by
In LTM what are schemas?
organized cluster of knowledge about a certain object or sequence of events
In LTM, what are semantic networks?
- a network that consists of concepts joined together by links that show how the concepts are related
- bread and butter NOT bread and river
What is a retrieval cue?
a stimulus associated with a memory that is used to locate that memory
When the original context of an event can be recreated a person's memory recall is better or worse?
Physical environment is a kind of
The ________ _______ of retrieval is emphasized in schema theories of memory.
Ebbinghau's suggests that most material is forgotten very rapidly soon after practice and then level's out. True or False?
Recall vs Recognition
Which one would use essay questions for measuring forgetting?
What is recognition in measuring the retention of forgetting?
multiple choice questions