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Where does the term “nursing” come from?
Latin “to nourish”
What society was well known for community public health, system of care takers, food preservation practices?
What era was known as the nursing “hey day”?
When and where was the first formal nursing school established?
1860, St. Thomas’ in London
Who was first to use the scientific method to solve medical problems?
What was the role of nursing during the middle ages?
Women were leaders in healing and caring
When did the idea of a formal hospital first take root?
What was the role of physicians and nurses during the middle ages?
- Physicians did little care: Translate medical essays
- Nurses: high-level occupation
What are the three images of nursing dating back to the Dark Ages?
- Folk image
When and where was the first hospital built in America and by whom?
Ben Franklin in Philly 1751
When was the US Public Health Service founded?
What was the effect of the Civil War on nursing?
It sparked the beginning of nursing training schools. Mostly on the job training.
When were duties of the floor nurse established?
When and where were the first US nursing schools established?
1873 in New Haven, CT, Boston, MA and NY
What were the names of the first three US hospitals to house nursing schools?
- New England Hospital for Women and Children
- Mass General Hospital
- Bellevue Hospital
What two types of nursing did Florence Nightingale establish?
- Care of the Ill
- Promotion of Health
When did Florence Nightingale publish Notes on Nursing?
Which Civil War nurse demanded the best care and worked on behalf of the mentally ill?
Which historical nurse established Henry Street Settlement House and gave birth to home-health nursing?
Which historical nurse established the American Red Cross?
Which historical nurse was the first African American registered nurse?
Which historical nurse was the first nursing professor?
Mary Ann Nutting
Which historical nurse established the UM.SON and when?
Louisa Parsons in 1889
Which historical nurse established the U.S. Cadet Nurse Corps during WWII?
Which historical nurse formed the first nursing organizations?
Isabel Hampton Robb
What were the first two nursing organizations?
- ANA – American Nursing Association
- NLN – National League for Nursing
What did the Social Security Act of 1935 do?
Establish jobs for new nurses during the Great Depression
Which historical nurse established the Fronteir Nursing Service and traveled on horseback?
When did nursing emerge as a “true profession?”
What was the result of the 1943 Nurse Training Act?
Federal money was allocated for nursing education
What was the result of th 1946 Hill-Burton Act?
Construction of hospitals
What was the result of the Health Care Crisis in 1980?
Registered Care Techs
When was the Flexnor report published and what did it do?
- Critiqued medical education which paved way for changes in medicine and nursing
Whose recommendations did nursing use and implement into nursing schools?
Who established that professional organizations are a primary point of reference?
Who compiled a set of 8 characteristics of a profession?
What distinguishes an occupation from a profession?
- Occupation = trade
- Profession = calling/vocation
What are 5 characteristics of a profession?
- Code of ethics
- Body of knowledge
What is the most important factor for nursing as a profession?
What is the Nurse’s Code of Ethics?
A written, public document, guided by ethical standards promoted by Nightingale modified over years to strengthen and guide nurses decision making.
What is the only full service professional organization representing the nation’s entire RN population?
What was the concept in Bette Neuman’s System Model?
- Person is open and dynamic system
- Nursing maintains client system stability
What was the concept of Dorothea Orem’s Self-Care Model?
Nurse prescribes and regulates the nursing system based on the patient’s self-care deficit
What was the concept of Rogers Science of Unitary Human Beings model?
Assist people in achieving their maximum health potential
What was the concept of Roy’s Adaptation Model?
Individual is a biophsychococial adaptive system and nursing is a humanistic discipline.
What was the goal of Ida Jean Orlando’s Nursing Process Theory?
Determine and meet patient’s immediate needs and improve situation by relieving distress through deliberate action.
What was the concept behind Madaleine Leininger’s Cultural Care Theory?
Caring is the essence of nursing and patients are viewed in the context of their culture.
What did Flexnor’s 1915 report focus on?
What are the educational routes for RN?
- Hospital-based diploma programs
- Associates degree
- Generic Masters (CNL)
- Generic doctoral
When and where was the first BS degree for nursing established?
1909 at University of Minnesota
When and where was the first School of Nursing established as a separate department from the medical school?
1924, Yale School of Nursing
When and by whom was the first associates degree in nursing established?
1952 by Mildred Montag
What did the Brown Report (Carnegie Foundation) of 1948 recommend?
- Planned programs of education for nurses in colleges
- Programs should be periodically reviewed for accreditation
When was the Chicago World’s Fair and what was the result?
1896 and it established the ANA
When was the National Accreditation of Nursing Programs established?
What was published in 1965 that promoted the BSN as the foundation for practice and that all licensed nursing education should take place in an institution of higher education?
ANA Position Paper
What established that states should oversee minimum education, check requirements and examine theory and practice of nursing?
Omnibus Reconciliation Act (OBRA) in 1987
What report affirmed the BSN as the minimum entry into professional nursing practice?
NLN Position Statement on Nursing Roles in 1982
Who awards hospitals “magnet” status?
Which nursing training is certified under state authority and guided by federal guidelines?
Certified Nursing Assistant
Which nursing training program requires one year of preparation and varies from state to state?
Licensed Practical Nurse
Which nursing training requires attending an accredited school?
Where do accreditation agencies derive authority from?
- U.S. Department of Education
- What organization that is recognized by the US DOE is responsible for accreditation of BSN and higher?
What is the largest source of federal funding for nursing?
Title VIII of the Public Health Service Act
What four documents established the scope of practice for nursing?
- Nurse Practice Act
- Nursing’s Social Policy Statement
- The Code of Ethics for Nurses
- Nursing: Scope and Standards of Practice
When and where was the first Nurse Practice Act enacted?
1903 North Carolina
Which state made RN licensure mandatory for practice?
New York – 1947
What are the key components of a typical state nurse practice act?
- Board of Nursing defines professional nursing
- Sets minimum education requirements for licensure
- Determines titles that can be used
- Disciplinary actions
- Board’s Authority
What is the legal authority of State Boards of Nursing?
None, they can only implement, enforce, clarify nurse practice acts, create standards for licensure and renewals and approve education programs and discipline.
What are two ways a nurse can practice nursing in another state?
License by exam or endorsement
Who gives the NCLEX exam?
State Board of Nursing
What are the 5 Rights of Delegation?
- Right Task
- Right Circumstance
- Right Person
- Right Communication
- Right Supervision
What should RNs/LPNs NOT delegate?
- Tasks that require nursing judgement
- Patient education
Where is common law enacted?
In the courts
Where is statutory law enacted?
Through legislation (Constitutional Law)
Where is administrative law enacted?
Through governmental agencies
What are torts?
Violations of civil law
What are two unintentional torts?
What is negligence?
Failure to act reasonably
What is malpractice?
Not meeting standards of care…Commission and Omission
What does F-A-C-T-S stand for?
- In documentation:
- F = factual
- A = Accurate
- C = concise
- T = timely
- S = reflects standards of care
Who facilitates informed consent?
What distinguishes licensure from certification?
- Licensure is permissive and mandatory
- Certification is voluntary or for RNs who have advanced competence
What are four advance practice nursing degrees?
- NP – nurse practitioner
- CNS – certified nurse specialist
- NA – nurse anesthetist
- NM – nurse midwife
- What are four classifications of health agencies?
What did the AHA develop to promote effective patient care?
Patient Bill of Rights
What six items do patients have the right to according to the Patients Bill of Rights?
- 1. High hospital quality care
- 2. Clean and safe environment
- 3. Involvement in their care
- 4. Protection of privacy
- 5. Help with bills and filing insurance claims
- 6. Help when leaving the hospital
What informs patients of Advance Directives?
1991 Patient Self Determination Act
What is an appointment directive?
Durable power of attorney for health care
What is a treatment directive?
How do professional assoc. serve society?
- Develop standards of practice
- Establish a code of ethics
How do professional assoc. serve members?
- Keep high standards
- Have political power via collective action
How do professional assoc. serve the nursing profession?
- Organize interests of members
- Continuing education
- Advocate for political responses
What 6 things do nursing organizations do?
- Testify for decision making bodies
- Individual support for political candidates
What are 3 main types of professional assoc.?
- Board purpose
- Specialty practice
- special interest