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2010-11-29 21:53:06
Computer technology

Computer technology terms
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  1. Gigahertz (GHz)
    One billion ticks of the system clock per second.
  2. Access time
    The time it takes a storage device to locate an item on a storage medium or the time required to deliver an item from memory to the processor.
  3. ALU
    (Arithmetic Logic Unit) component of a processor that performs arithmetic, comparison, and other operations.
  4. ASCII
    American Standard Code for Information Interchange; the most widely used coding system to represent data.
  5. BIOS
    (Basic Input/Output system) Firmware that contains the computers startup instructions.
  6. Bit
    The smallest unit of data a computer can process. Bit is short for binary digit.
  7. Booting
    Process of starting up or restarting a computer.
  8. Browser (WWW)
    Application software that allows users to access and view web pages.
  9. Byte
    Eight bits that are grouped together as a unit. A byte provides enough different combinations of 0's and 1's to represent 256 individual characters.
  10. Cable Modem
    Digital modem that sends and receives digital data over the cable television (CATV) network.
  11. CAD
    (Computer Aided Design) software is a sophisticated type of application software that assists professional users in creating engineering, architectural, and scientific designs.
  12. CD
    (CD-ROM) Type of optical disc that uses laser technology to store data, instructions, and information that users can read but not write on or erase.
  13. CD-RW
    Erasable multi session optical disc on which users can write data, instructions, and information multiple times.
  14. CMOS
    (Complementary Metal-Oxide Semiconductor) technology used by some RAM chips, flash memory chips, and other types of memory chips that provides high speeds and consumes little power by using battery power to retain information even when power to a computer is off.
  15. Computer program
    Series of instructions that directs a computer to perform tasks.
  16. CPU
    (Central Processing Unit) Electronic component on the computers motherboard that interprets and carries out the basic instructions that operate the computer.
  17. CRT
    (Cathode-Ray Tube) Type of desktop monitor that contains a cathode-ray tube.
  18. Cylinder
    The vertical section of the hard disk track that passes through all platters.
  19. Defragmenter
    A utility program that reorganizes the files and unused space on a computers hard disk so that the operating system accesses data more quickly and programs run faster.
  20. Database
    Collection of data organized in a manner that allows access, retrieval, and use of that data.
  21. Disk cache
    Memory chips on a hard disk that store frequently accessed items such as data, instructions, and information. sometimes called a buffer.
  22. Dot-matrix Printer
    A type of impact printer that produces images when tiny wire pins on a print head mechanism strike an inked ribbon.
  23. dpi
    Dots Per Inch, is a measure of a print resolution.
  24. Driver
    Small program that tells the operating system how to communicate with a specific device.
  25. DSL
    (Digital Subscriber Line) type of digital technology that provides high-speed internet connections using regular copper telephone lines.
  26. DVD
    High capacity optical disc on which users can read but not write or erase.
  27. Excel
    A spreadsheet program by Microsoft.
  28. FAQ
    (Frequently Asked Question) List that helps users find answers to frequently asked questions.
  29. Field
    Each column in a database that a specific category of data within a record.
  30. File
    Named unit of storage.
  31. Flash memory
    Type of non-volatile memory that can be erased electronically and rewritten.
  32. FTP
    (File Transfer Protocol) An internet standard that permits file uploading and downloading with other computers on the internet.
  33. GIF
    (Graphics Interchange Format) Graphics format that uses compression techniques to reduce file size.
  34. Gigabyte
    (GB) Approximately 1 billion bytes.
  35. GIGO
    (Garbage In, Garbage Out) It is used primarily to call attention to the fact that computers will unquestioningly process the most nonsensical of input data (garbage in) and produce nonsensical output (garbage out).
  36. GUI
    (Graphical User Interface) Menus and visual images such as buttons and other graphical objects used to issue commands.
  37. Hardware
    Electric, electronic, and mechanical components contained in a computer.
  38. http
    (Hypertext Transfer Protocol) a set of rules that defines how pages transfer on the internet.
  39. IM
    (Instant Messaging) a real-time internet communications service that notifies you when one or more people are online and then allows you to exchange messages or files or join a private chat room.
  40. Inkjet printer
    Type of non-impact printer that forms characters and graphics by spraying tiny drops of liquid ink on a piece of paper.
  41. Input
    Any data and instructions entered into the memory of a computer.
  42. instruction cycle
    The basic operation cycle of a computer. It is the process by which a computer retrieves a program instruction from its memory, determines what actions the instruction requires, and carries out those actions.
  43. Internet telephony
    Technology that allows users to speak to other users over the internet.
  44. JPEG
    (Joint Photographic Experts Group) Format that compresses graphics to reduce their file size.
  45. KB
    The kilobyte is a multiple of the unit byte for digital information. The prefix kilo means 1000 in the International System of Units (SI), therefore 1 kilobyte is 1000bytes.
  46. keyboard
    Input device that contains keys users press to enter data and instructions into a computer.
  47. Laser printer
    Type of high-speed, high-quality non-impact printer that creates images using a laser beam and powdered ink called toner.
  48. LCD
    Desktop monitor that uses liquid crystal display instead of a cathode ray tube to produce images on a screen resulting in a sharp flicker free display.
  49. Linux
    Popular, multitasking UNIX-type operating system.
  50. Mainframe
    Large, expensive, powerful computer that can handle hundreds or thousands of connected users simultaneously, storing tremendous amounts of data, instructions, and information.
  51. Megabyte
    (MB) Approximately 1 million bytes.
  52. Memory
    Electronic components in a computer that store instructions waiting to be executed by the processor, the data needed by those instructions, and the results of processing the data.
  53. MICR
    Technology that reads text printed with magnetized ink.
  54. mouse
    Pointing device that fits comfortably under the palm of a user's hand.
  55. MPEG
    Moving Pictures Experts Group.
  56. OCR
    (Optical Character Recognition) Software that enables scanners to read and convert text documents into electronic files.
  57. Operating System
    (OS) Set of programs containing instructions that work together to coordinate all activities among computer hardware devices.
  58. Petabyte
    A petabyte (derived from the SI prefix peta- ) is a unit of information equal to one quadrillion (short scale) bytes, or 1000terabytes. The unit symbol for the petabyte is PB.
  59. Pixel
    The smallest element in an electronic image, short for picture element.
  60. POP
    (Post Office Protocol) Communications protocol used by some incoming mail servers.
  61. PostScript
    Standard printer language used by professionals in the desktop publishing and graphics art fields, designed for complex documents with intense graphics and colors.
  62. PowerPoint
    Slideshow program by Microsoft.
  63. RAID
    (Redundant Array of Independent Disks) Group of two or more integrated hard disks that acts like a single large hard disk.
  64. RAM
    (Random Access Memory) Type of volatile memory that can be read from and written to by the processor and other devices.
  65. Random access
    Type of data access in which the storage device can locate particular data items or files immediately without having to more consecutively through items stored in front of the desired data item or file.
  66. Record
    Each row in a database that contains data about a given person, product, object, or event.
  67. ROM
    Read only memory.
  68. Scanner
    Light-sending input device that reads printed text and graphics and then translates the results into a form the computer can process.
  69. Search engine
    Program that finds web sites, web pages, images, videos, news, maps, and other information related to a specific topic.
  70. Sequential access
    Type of data access in which the storage device reads and writes data consecutively.
  71. Server OS
    (Server Operating System) Operating system that organizes and coordinates how multiple users access and share resources on a network.
  72. Software
    Series of instructions that tells a computer what tasks to perform and how to perform them.
  73. Software package
    A software package refers to computer software packaged in an archive format to be installed by a package management system or a self-sufficient installer.
  74. Stand-alone OS
    Complete operating system that works on a desktop computer, notebook computer, or mobile computing device.
  75. Storage
    Location in which data, instructions, and information are held for future use.
  76. Supercomputer
    Fastest, most powerful, and most expensive computer, capable of processing more than one quadrillion instructions in a single second.
  77. Terabyte
    (TB) Approximately 1 trillion bytes.
  78. Telecommuting
    Work arrangement in which employees work away from a company's standard workplace and often communicate with the office through the computer.
  79. Thermal printer
    Type of non impact printer that generates images by pushing electronically heated pins against heat sensitive paper.
  80. UNIX
    Multitasking operating system that now is a available for most computers of all sizes.
  81. URL
    (Uniform Resource Locator) Unique address for a web page.
  82. Vista
    Windows operating system.
  83. VR
    3-D environment that contains infinite space depth created with special VR software.
  84. Word
    document composing software by Microsoft.
  85. XP
    Microsoft's earlier operating system that was replaced with Vista.
  86. ACM
    Association for Computing Machinery is a scientific and educational organization dedicated to the advancing knowledge and proficiency of information technology.
  87. AI
    Artificial Intelligence is the application of human intelligence to computers.
  88. Analysis Phase
    Step in the system development cycle that consists of two major activities: conducting a preliminary investigation and to perform detailed analysis.
  89. Applet
    Interpreted program that runs a client, but is compiled.
  90. B2B
    Business to Business is when e-commerce is conducted between businesses.
  91. B2C
    Business to Consumer is when e-commerce is conducted between a business and a consumer.
  92. COBOL
    COmmon Business-Oriented Language, evolved out of a joint effort between the United States government and major universities in the early 1960's.
  93. Cookie
    Small text file that a web server stores on a computer.
  94. Data Warehouse
    Huge Database that stores and manages the data required to analyze historical and current transactions.
  95. DBMS
    Database Management System is a program that allows a user to create a computerized database; add, modify, and delete data in the database, sort and retrieve data from the database; create forms and reports from the data in the database.
  96. Design Phase
    Phase of the system development cycle that consists of two major activities: if necessary, acquire hardware and software and to develop all of the details of the new or modified information system.
  97. DFD
    Data Flow Diagram is a systems analysis and design tool that graphically shows the flow of data in a system.
  98. Expert System
    Information system that captures and stores the knowledge of human experts and then imitates human reasoning and decision making.
  99. Fiber Optic Cable
    Dozens of thin strands of glass or plastic that use light to transmit signals.
  100. Firewall
    Hardware and/or software that protects a network's resources from intrusion by users on another network such as the internet.
  101. Fuzzy Logic
    Fuzzy logic is a form of multi-valued logic derived from fuzzy set theory to deal with reasoning that is approximate rather than accurate. In contrast with "crisp logic", where binary sets have binary logic, fuzzy logic variables may have a truth value that ranges between 0 and 1 and is not constrained to the two truth values of classic propositional logic.
  102. Genetic Algorithm.
    The genetic algorithm (GA) is a search heuristic that mimics the process of natural evolution. This heuristic is routinely used to generate useful solutions to optimization and searchproblems.
  103. HTML
    Hyper Text Markup Language; special formatting language that programmers use to format documents for display on the web.
  104. Internet
    Worldwide collection of networks that connect millions of businesses, government agencies, educational institutions, and individuals.
  105. Intranet
    An internal internet that uses internet technologies.
  106. Java
    Object-oriented programming language developed by Sun Microsystems.
  107. Light Pen
    An input device used on tablet PC's to draw or write and have the computer recognize and translate the motions of the pen into data.
  108. MCSA
    Microsoft Certified Applications Specialist certificate that tests a user's skills of Microsoft Office 2007 programs and windows Vista.
  109. Neural Network
    System that attempts to imitate the behavior of the human brain.
  110. Object
    Database item that contains data, as well as the actions that read or process the data.
  111. Parallel Conversion
    Conversion strategy where the old system runs alongside the new system for a specified time.
  112. Planning
    Management activity that involves establishing goals and objectives.
  113. Primary Key
    Field in a database that uniquely identifies each record in a file.
  114. Prototype
    Working model of a proposed system.
  115. SAN
    Storage Area Network; high speed network with the sole purpose of providing storage to other servers to which it is attached.
  116. Spam
    Unsolicited e-mail messages or newsgroups posting sent to many recipients or newsgroups at once.
  117. Systems Analyst
    Person responsible for designing and developing an information system.
  118. Toolbook
    Multimedia authoring program with a graphical user interface that uses an object-oriented approach, so that programmers can design multimedia applications using basic objects.
  119. Virus
    Potentially damaging computer program that affects, or infects, a computer negatively by altering the way the computer works without a user's knowledge or permission.
  120. Visual Basic
    Programming language that allows programmers to easily build complex task oriented object-based programs.
  121. Worm
    Malicious-logic program that copies itself repeatedly, using up system resources and possibly shutting down the system.