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Explain the difference between the so-called "epithelial membranes" and the more general term "epithelium." What are the three main types of epithelial membranes in the body, where are they, and what do they do?
The difference between the "epithelial membrane" and the more general term "epithelium", comes to the fact that the general term, is like a protective layer, for example skin. The epithelial membranes, all have functions. The three main types of epithelial membranes in the body are Mucous membranes, Serous membranes, and Cutaneous membranes. The Mucous membrane is a "wet" membranes and it lines internal cavities. The Serous membrane lines ventral body cavities and it's lubricated by serous fluid with hyaluronice acid. The cutaneous membrane is the "dry" membrane.
In what way is the epithelial "membrane" considered a simple "organ"?
The epithelial "membrane" is consider a organ becayse it's a on multicellular sheet, serves as a epithelium layer, connective tissue base, and a organ.
What are the roles of the cutaneous membrane (skin), and what are specific roles of the epidermis, dermis and hypodermis layer of the skin?
- The general roles of the skin are
- -Protective barrier, such as the epidermis
- -Temperature control, such as vasodilation and sweat
- -Cutaneous surface sensation, such as superficial and deep touch/pressure receptors
- -Blood reservoir, 5% of total
- -Energy storage, such as adipocytes
- The specific role of the Epidermis is to dry, protective barrier tissue region.
- The specific role of the Dermis is
- The specific role of the Hypodermis is
Memorize the layers of the epidermis, and the key cell types and defining characteristics of each layer.
- The layers of the epidermis are five, Stratum basale, Strtum spinosum, Stratum granulosum, Stratum lucidum and Stratum corneum.
- 1. Stratum Basale (1 cell layer thick)
- -young keratinocytes
- -high mitotic rate
- -10-25% melanocytes
- 2. Stratum spinosum (several cells thick)
- -kereatinocytes, Langerhans cells
- -melanin granules
- 3. Stratum granulosum (3-5 cell thick)
- -flattend keratinocytes with lamellated granules
- -high zone of diffusion
- 4.Stratum lucidum (3 cells thick)
- -only in thick skin
- -clear, dead kertinocytes
- 5. Stratum corneum (20-30 cells thick)
- -protective layer of dead keratinized cells (overcoat)
Where might you find the stratum lucidum layer of the epidermis?
The only place to find the stratum lucidum layer of the epidermis is in thick skin.
Why does the stratum lucidum and the stratum corneum of epidermis contain almost exclusively dead cells? What is the highest area of diffusion for demal nutrients.
The stratum lucidum and the stratum corneum contain almost dead cells because they surpass the stratum granulosum, and the stratum granulosm is the highest level of diffusion, anything about it is dead cells. The highest level of diffusion is Stratum granulosum.
What are the regions/layers of the dermis, and how do they differ?
Their is two layers of the dermis, they are papillary and reticular layer. The papillary layer is in the upper part, it's areolar connective tissue, with collagen and elastin, it also has the Dermal papillae, the "fingers." The reticular layers is dense irregular connective tissue, it's packed with collagen fibers, and its most of the dermis.
What are the major cutaneous sensory receptors; compare them.
Name and describe the classes of cutaneous glands. Are they exorcine or endocrine?
- Their is two kinds of cutaneous glands which are sweat glands and sebaceous glands. Sweat glands makes sweat, it has two types:
- -Eccrine, which is found all over.Widespread, ducts to skin pores. The sweat has no smell, and it's made from mostly water and some salts.
- -Apocrine, is found in the axillary, anus, and genitals. its ducts to hair follicle or to skin. the sweat has the smell, and its make from protein and sugars which gives it the milkey texture.
How do aporcine sweat glands differ from eccrine sweat glands.
The eccrine sweat gland, differs from the apocrine type because the eccrine sweat gland is found wide spread and the aporcine is found in the axillary, anus and genitals. The eccrine sweat gland is the non-smelly sweat, and the apocrine is the smelly sweat. With the eccrine the sweat is made from water, and some salts, in the apocrine the sweat is made from protiens and sugars. Eccrine ducts to skin pores, and aprocrine ducts to hair follicle or to skin.
What explains the smooth tone of a young person's skin, and the drying and agining the comes with getting older?
That is the role of the arrector pili muscles, and what type of muscle are they?
Know the signs and symptoms of 1st, 2nd and 3rd degree burns, know the clinical definiton of the "critical" burn, and know the treatment for each type.
- -1st degree burn, is considered minor, the eperdermis is damaged and theirs redness of the skin (sunburn)
- -2nd degree burn, the eperdermis is dead and the dermis is damaged "blisters"
- -3rd degree burn, (a full thickness burn), the epidermis and dermis is dead, and the hypodermis maybe be damaged (black char skin)
- The defenition of a critical burn is, 25% of the body burned with 2nd degree burns, 10% of the body burned with 3rd degree burms, of any of the face, due to sweeling of the airways, and later causes sufication. Also, any burns on hands or feet, due to the blood flow.
What is the cause of mortality in most pepople who die of severe burns? Explain.
The cause of mortality death in most people is from two reasons, fluid loose or infections. When someone is burned, and the burn is big, they can loose water, which can lead the death of fluid loss, some people can loose water faster then it can be replaced. Another cause is infections, some burns can cause infections very rapidly, which can lead to death.
How does shingles differ from chickenpox? What is a dermatome?
Shingles differs from chickenpox because shingles found a nerve, and people who have had chicken pox when younger will get this. Shingles are also painful, versus chicken pox are itcy. Only children will get Chickenpox, and its widespread of the entire body. A dermatone is a nerve, and thats the nerve shingles follows to where it's gunna expose itself too.
Compare Herpes simplex I and II, and Herpes Zoster Varicella virus.
- -Herpes I, are like sores, they can be given by physical contact, their usually head level (lip)
- -Herpes II, they are blisters, it's in the spinal level, they cause pain, and they are sexually transmitted, and their are found in the geneitals
- Both types will grow blisters, and they will "go away" but they dont go away, they go back into the body. For example HSV type I, it will relax in the nasal area, stuff like stress and lack of sleep can bring them back.
- Herpes Zoster Varicella are chickenpox, and their widespread rash, and come out when people are young.
Why are the stratum lucidum and stratum corneum of epidermis almost exclusively dead?
The reason why the stratum lucidum and stratum corneum are almost exclusively dead its because once you pass the stratum grandulosum is the highest level of difusion, anything above that are dead all because their further from the blood.
What are the regions/layers of the dermis, and how do they differ?
The layers of the dermis are papillary layers, and retucular layer. The papillary is a areolar connective tissue with collagen and elastic and have dermal papilae. The reticular layer is dense irregular connective tissue, packed with collage fibers and most is the dermis.
Describe the classes of cutaneous glands. Are they exocrine or endocrine?
There are two types of cutaneous glands. Sweat glands and sebeaceous glands. Sweat glands makes two types of sweat, Eccrine and Apocrine. Eccrine is found all over, the sweat has no smell and it made from mostly water and some salts. Apocrine makes the smelly sweat, and made from proteins and sugars, which makes it a milky sweat. This kind is found in the anus, genitals and axillary.
Review major skin cancers, (cause, compare)?
The major skin cancers are three, basal cell carcinoma, squamos cell carcinoma and melanoma (very dangerous). The cause of basel cell carinoma is stratum basale cells proliferate, invading the dermis and hypodermis. Occurs more often on the sun exposed areas. The cause of squamos cell carinoma is it aries from the keratinocytes of the stratum spinosum. Most often found in the head (scalp, ears and lower lip) and hands. The cause of Melanoma can form anywhere theirs a pigment.
Define and give example of each of the types (shapes) of bones we have mentioned.
Their is 5 types of bones, Long bones, short-bones, flat bones, irreulgar bones, and seasmoid bones. The long bones are a retangle shape, with a shfat +2 ends. A short-bone is a sqaure/cube shaped. A flat bone is very thing. A irregular bone, are bones that don't fit into catergories. A seasamoid bone, forms insides tendons.
Compare flat bones to long bones (structurally)
The difference between long bones are, and the flat bones are
Compare compact bone to spongy bone, in terms of histology, function and special features (like the types of marrow each would likely to contain.)
In terms of histology, the compact bone, dense superficial "collar" and the spongy bone, has open, spongy apperance, dipole and trabeculae. The compact bone is heavier, and undirectional stress resistance, and the spongy bone is ligther, and has a more general stress resistance.
Review the structure of a osteon, and be able to label completely if seen on exam.
- A osteon bone: structural unit
- -concentril lamelle
- -parallel collagen fibers within lamellae
- -anitparallel fibers between lamellae
Review the long bone architecture, to able to label its parts, and explain the role of each region, and histological differences.
The long bone has its Diaphysis (shaft) and Epiphysis (ends). The diaphysis is a compact bone collar and marrow cavity. The epiphysis is a spongy bone, compact bone rim (think cortex) and articular cartilage cover (joints)
Where is periosteum, and where is endostem? What is the relevance of this tissue?
The periosteum is outer packagaing tissue, which have fibourous layers, in the outer, and osteogenic layer, in the deep. Also perforating Sharpeys fibers.The endosteum are lining/covering tissue and it's spongy trabeculae and compact bone central canals.