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what is another word for gagging and what is it?
- a strong involuntary effort to vomit
what is another term for gag reflex and what is it?
- pharyngeal reflex
- retching that is elicited by stimulation of the sensitive tissues of the soft palate region
what is the reason for the gag reflex?
to protect the body by clearing the airway of obstruction
T/F only some patients have a gag reflex.
false! (ALL patients) some are more sensitive than others
what is a common problem when taking radiographs?
dealing with a patient with a hypersensitive gag reflex
what are the two areas in the mouth that are most likely to cause gagging?
- soft palate
- lateral posterior third of the tongue
what two reactions occur before the gag reflex is initiated?
- cessation of respiration
- contraction of the muscles in the throat and abdomen
what two precipitating stimuli are responsible for initiating the gag reflex?
- psychogenic stimuli- mind
- tactile stimuli- touch
what must the operator be aware of with a hypersensitive patient to gagging?
- operator attitude
- pt equipment and preparations
- exposure sequencing
- film placement and technique
- helpful hints
what must the operator attitude involve?
- patience, tolerance and understanding
- reassure the patient
what is the patient equipment and preparation?
limit the time the film is in the mouth
- anteriors first
- expose maxillary films last, since this is the most likely to elicit gag reflex
what should be done during film placement and technique?
- avoid sliding the film along the roof of the mouth
- demonstrate film placement before placement
what happens if there is an extreme case of gag reflex, what is the other option?
take extraoral film (pano/lateral jaw)
what is a patient with a disability?
physical or mental impairment that limits one or more of an individual's major life activities
to interact with a patient with visual disability, use _________ ___________.
someone with hearing impairment needs an __________, gesture, written instructions, face patient and speak _________
mobility impairment= __________ ___________, chair care, ___________ to assist with radiographs
- clear communication
- patient transfer
autism, cerebral palsy, epilepsy, neuropathies, and mental retardation are ___________ impairment that occurs before age ____
what is involved with mental retardation?
- coordination problems (mild sedative)
- comprehensive problems (caregiver assistant)
- possibly no radiographs or extraoral only
prescribing radiographs for pediatric patients is determined by
age and cooperation
patient and equipment preparations for a pedo patient
- explain procedure (camera, blanket, picture)
- lead apron
- exposure factors (reduced)
- film size (0,1,2)
- occlusal (size 2 or occlusal film)
how to manage a pediatric patient
- confident, patient, understanding
- show and tell
- request assistance
- postpone exam
recommended technique and film holder for endo
paralleling technique (EndoRay)
what are the purposes of taking radiographs on edentulous patients?
- detect root tips, lesions (cysts, tumors), impacted teeth, embedded objects
- locate mental foramen
- observe quality and quantity of bone
what is the most common x-ray taken for edentulous patients?
why would you take a pa after a pano on an edentulous patient?
if you saw something embedded in the bone, and you need more detail
what techniques are used when taking an fmx on an edentulous patient?
- 14 pa's (6 ant and 8 post)
- size 2 film
- cotton roll on both sides of the bite block
- bisecting = edentulous film and ridge is bisected
- 1/3 of film extending beyond ridge
- good for resorbed alveolar bone
how many occlusals and pa's are taken on an edentulous patient?
- 1 max, 1 man occlusal size 4
- 4 pa's size 2