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2010-10-06 22:12:35
osmolarity osmolality energy transport

Osmolarity & Energy & Transport
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  1. first law of thermodynamics
    the total energy of a system and its surroundings must remain constant; energy can be neither created nor destroyed
  2. second law of thermodynamics
    the entropy of a system tends to increase
  3. free energy
    energy available to do work; the change in free energy of a system is equal to the energy of the products minus the energy of the reactants
  4. entropy
  5. enthalpy
    heat content (chemical bond energy)
  6. standard free energy change
    represented by delta Gknot; represents the free energy change when the initial concentration of each reactant and product is 1 M & pressure is 1 atm & pH = 0 ( for biochemical purposes pH = 7) & the temperature is 298 K (25 degrees C)
  7. relationship between entropy & enthalphy & free energy
    change in free energy = change in enthalpy - temperature * (change in entropy)
  8. spontaneous reaction
    likely to occur when free energy is released (exergonic reaction with negative delta G)
  9. equilibrium constant
    the ratio of product to reactant concentration when the forward and reverse reactions proceed at the same rate
  10. relationship between standard free energy and equilibrium constant
    reciprocal; high delta G = low Keq and vice versa
  11. high energy biochemical compounds
    phosphoenolpyruvate; creatine phosphate; 1 3-bisphosphogycerate
  12. osmole
    a mole of dissolved solute; ignores the nature of the solute and assumes the solute to be a particle
  13. osmolarity
    the concentration of osmoles; the summed concentration of dissolved solutes when each is expressed in molar units
  14. osmolality
    the degree to which dissolved solute lowers the concentration of water in solution; takes into account the specific drawing power of a solute; expressed in milliosmoles of solute per kilogram of solution
  15. osmotic pressure
    equivalent to osmolality expressed in pressure units
  16. real solutions vs. ideal solutions
    calculations involving ideal solutions treat solute as ions/small particles and do not take into account the solute's specific interactions with water molecules
  17. normal values of plasma osmolarity
    about 308 � 5 mOsM/L
  18. normal values of plasma osmolality
    about 285 � 5 mOsM/kg
  19. osmolality vs. tonicity
    osmolality is determined by any substance that reduces the concentration of water; tonicity includes only solutes that can affect the volume of a cell (ONLY impermeant solutes)
  20. determinant of cell volume
    cell osmolality and its relation to the osmolality of the environment
  21. colloids
    plasma proteins and other solutes that cannot easily cross epithelial barriers; can cause significant differences in osmolality between tissue interstitial fluid and blood
  22. crystalloids
    small solutes (such as sodium and glucose) that easily cross capillaries between blood and interstitial fluid outside the vascular compartment; do not create significant differences in osmolality between blood and tissue extracellular fluid
  23. colloid osmotic pressure
    osmotic pressure due to colloids in a solution; also called oncotic pressure
  24. distribution of body water & body sodium & body potassium in ICF
    about 2/3 of total body water and total body solutes are in ICF (osmotically equal to ECF)
  25. distribution of body water & body sodium & body potassium in ECF
    about 1/3 of total body water and total body solutes are in ECF (osmotically equal to ICF)
  26. assumptions used in a compartmental analysis
    1 - all fluids are ideal (thus can use osmolarity in calculations); 2 - ICF and ECF are in osmotic equilibrium; 3 - the fraction of total body water in each compartment is proportional to the fraction of total body solute in each compartment; 4 - gain/loss of sodium is to/from ECF; 5 - gain/loss of potassium is to/from ICF; 6 - glucose initially distributes to the ECF but is removed as it is metabolized
  27. CPET
    cardiopulmonary exercise training; involves measurement of oxygen uptake (VO2) & carbon dioxide output (VCO2) & minute ventilation (VE) & 12 lead ECG & HR/BP response & pulse oximetry (SpO2); evaluates cardiac & pulmonary & metabolic function
  28. Peak VO2
    the maximum capacity of a person's body to transport and use oxygen during incremental exercise
  29. anaerobic threshold
    most important parameter for assessment of cardiac output & peripheral circulation & pulmonary circulation; corresponds to the point in time at which lactate begins to accumulate (anaerobic respiration); is independent of patient motivation
  30. primordial prevention
    includes physical activity & healthy eating & ideal weight & psychosocial factors & familial predisposition
  31. primary prevention
    includes lipid-lowering & hypertension control & smoking cessation & diabetes control
  32. secondary prevention
    involves treatment of cardiovascular disease through ASA & ACE-I & rehab & beta-blockers
  33. FITT principle
    frequency & intensity & time & type
  34. molarity of water
    about 55.5 mol/L
  35. tonicity
    a solute's ability to affect a cell's volume; only impermeant solutes contribute to tonicity
  36. relative water content of the body
    around 50-60%
  37. relative water content in ECF vs. ICF
    around 2/3 total body water = ICF; 1/3 = ECF
  38. passive transport
    solutes are transferred down their electrochemical gradient; may or may not be protein-mediated; does not require energy
  39. active transport
    solutes are transferred against their electochemical gradient; requires energy
  40. simple diffusion
    method of passive transport; occurs through a membrane or a channel (can open and close) or a pore (always open)
  41. facilitated diffusion
    method of passive transport; occurs through a carrier; allows far fewer ions to pass through than in simple diffusion
  42. factors that determine solute transport across a membrane
    driving force; membrane permeability to solute; pathway
  43. primary active transport
    driving force comes from the favorable energy change associated with an exergonic reaction; includes P-type ATPases & ABC transporters & V-type H pump & F-type pump
  44. secondary active transport
    driving force is generated by coupling the uphill movement of one solute to the downhill movement of one or more solutes for which a favorable electrochemical potential exists
  45. mechanisms for primary active transport
    P-type ATPases involve a high-energy phosphate intermediate; ABC transporters (ATP-binding cassette) involve binding of ATP by a characteristic motif
  46. driving force for secondary active transport
    "energy storage from the electrochemical gradient of another
  47. co-transport
    secondary active transport in which both solutes move in the same direction across a membrane (one down its electrochemical gradient and the other up its electrochemical gradient)
  48. counter-transport
    secondary active transport in which the passively transported and the actively transported solutes move in opposite directions across the membrane
  49. osmolytes
    non-hydrolyzable molecules that are secreted by a cell for the sole purpose of regulating the osmolality inside the cell
  50. reaction of a cell to volume perturbance
    short-term = secretion of osmolytes; long-term = induction of synthesis or degredation of osmotically active molecules
  51. redox reaction
    involves the transfer of electrons from an electron donor (reductant) to an electron acceptor (oxidant)
  52. standard redox potential
    a measure of the tendency of a species to acquire electrons under standard conditions (pH of 0 - or 7 under standard biological conditions; 25 degrees; 1M concentration of each ion; partial pressure of 1 atm for each gas)
  53. relationship between standard redox potential and standard free energy change
    inverse; standard free energy is negative when standard redox potential is positive
  54. carriers of the mitochondrial electron transport chain
    membrane complexes I & II donate electrons to mobile carrier ubiquinone (coenzyme Q) -> membrane complex III -> mobile carrier cytochrome c -> membrane complex IV; arranged in order of increasing redox potential (negative to positive)
  55. protein motive force
    electrochemical gradient produced when 2 electrons moving through the ETC -> accumulation of 10 H+ outside of the membrane (movement of H+ from N side - matrix - to P side - intermembrane space
  56. mechanism for ATP synthesis
    protons travel down their concentration gradient through the a subunit of the F0 subunit ->c and gamma rotation -> cycle of beta subunit of F1 subunit through conformational changes (loose -> tight -> open) -> binding of phosphate to ADP -. ATP production
  57. reactive oxygen species
    can form when electrons are leaked from the electron transport chain; cause genetic mutations & membrane dysfunction & enzyme inactivation; include superoxide (1 extra electron) & hydrogen peroxide (2 extra electrons) & hydroxyl radicals (3 extra electrons)
  58. degredation of ROS
    manganese superoxide dismutase -> breakdown of superoxide in mitochondria; copper-zinc superoxide dismutase -> breakdown of superoxide in cytoplasm; catalase -> detoxifiction of hydrogen peroxide; glutathione peroxidase -> detoxification of hydrogen peroxide; no enzyme -> breakdown of hydroxy radical

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