Bio

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stylishstylist
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40358
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Bio
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2010-10-29 14:45:02
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Cell Division Genetics DNA Protein Organization Homeostasis Skeletal System
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Exam 2
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  1. Define mitosis
    growth and maintenance of the tissues. keeps the chromosome # at 46
  2. Define Meiosis
    It reduces chromosomes by half to 23. Leads to production of sperm and egg. Generates genetic diversity
  3. How does mitosis and meiosis process differ?
    • Mitosis > 2 cells with 46 chromosomes each
    • Meiosis > more steps than mitosis, 4 cells with 23 chromosomes each
  4. Define chromosome
    structure that holds your genes
  5. In humans, how many chromosomes are in somatic cells?
    46 chromosomes
  6. In humans, how many chromosomes are in reproductive cells?
    23 chromosomes
  7. For the cell cycle, what occurs in Interphase?
    made of G1, G2, and S
  8. For the cell cycle, what occurs in mitosis?
    • Prophase
    • Metaphase
    • Anaphase
    • Telophase
    • Cytokinesis
  9. For the cell cycle, what occurs in G1?
    growth
  10. For the cell cycle, what occurs in S?
    DNA is made
  11. For the cell cycle, what occurs in G2?
    Growth
  12. In mitosis, what happens in prophase?
    • Chromosomes are visible
  13. In mitosis, what happens in metaphase?
    • Chromosomes line up at the equator (middle)
  14. In mitosis, what happens in anaphase?
    • chromosomes are pulled apart
  15. In mitosis, what happens in telophase?
    • Nucleus is reformed
  16. In mitosis, what happens in cytokinesis?
    • cells divide
  17. For meiosis, what happens in meiosis I?
    2 cells with 46 chromosomes each
  18. For meiosis, what happens in meiosis II?
    4 cells with 23 chromosomes
  19. In meiosis, what is the significance of crossing over and independent assortment?
    gentic diversity
  20. Define nondisjunction
    chromosomes are not distributed equally
  21. What is the chromosome situation for someone with Down syndrome?
    there are 3 copies of chromosome 21
  22. What is the chromosome situation for someone with Klinefelter syndrome?
    more than 1 copy of the X chromosome
  23. What is the chromosome situation for some with Turner syndrome?
    only 1 X chromosome
  24. What was Gregor Mendel's role in genetics?
    study of pea plants (inheritance)
  25. Define Gene
    the basic unit of inheritance
  26. Define allele
    different versions of a gene ex. AA
  27. Define dominant allele
    • only one copy is needed for the characteristic to be present
    • dont skip generations
    • ex. A is the dominant allele in Aa
  28. Define recessive allele
    • requires 2 copies to have the same characteristic
    • more likely to skip generations
    • ex. aa is 2 recessive alleles
  29. Define codominance
    • 2 alleles that are equally dominant
    • ex. in ABO blood types A and B are codominant
  30. Define incomplete dominance
    • there isnt a dominant or recessive allele
    • Ex. Snap Dragon > RR-red + rr-white = Rr-pink
  31. Define genotype
    • the combination of allels
    • shown by letters.... ex. Aa
  32. Define phenotype
    • the physical aspect
    • ex. eye color, freckles
  33. Be able to complete a 1 trait cross with dominant/recessive traits (Ff), sex linked traits (XY and XX), and codominant traits (BW)
    Ex.
  34. Be able to calculate genotype and phenotype ratios
  35. Perform a cross of ABO blood types
  36. Who determines the sex of a child?
    the male (the father)
  37. How and why is aminocentesos sampling and chorionic villus sampling done?
    • sampling cells from the baby
    • to test for genetic disorders
  38. What is the flow of information in eukaryotic organisms?
    DNA --> RNA --> Protein
  39. What are the 3 differences between DNA and RNA?
    • strands
    • sugars
    • nitrogen bases
  40. What are the nitrogen bases in DNA?
    • Adenine - A
    • Thymine - T
    • Cytosine - C
    • Guanine - G
  41. What are the nitrogen bases in RNA?
    • Adenine - A
    • Uracil - U
    • Cytosine - C
    • Guanine - G
  42. What is the complimentary base pair of AATGCTCGTCA?
    • TTACGAGCAGT
    • (use the opposite of each letter to create the complimentary base pair)
  43. What is the sequence of nitrogen bases in a mRNA molecule TTACGAGCAGT?
    • UUACGAGCAGU
    • (use the complimentary strand and replace all T with U for Uracil, keep all other letters the same)
  44. In a DNA base pair....
    T =___, A = ___
    G = ___, C = ___
    • T=A, A=T
    • G=C, C=G
  45. How do you translate an mRNA sequence to amino acids using genetic codes?
    • put a line in between every 3 letters
    • look up your codes according to the segment of 3 letters
  46. What is the mRNA starting codon?
    AUG
  47. What are the 3 mRNA stop codons?
    • UAA
    • UAG
    • UGA
  48. For DNA replication, what is the function of the helicase?
    an enzyme that opens up the DNA molecule
  49. For DNA replication, what is the function of DNA Polymerase?
    makes new DNA
  50. What is the function of mRNA (messanger RNA)?
    carries information from the nucleus to the cytoplasm
  51. What is the function of tRNA (transfer RNA)?
    binds to a specific amino acid and transports it to be added to a polypeptide chain
  52. What is the function of rRNA (ribosomal RNA)?
    combines with protein to form ribosomes
  53. What is the function of RNA polymerase in transcription?
    makes new RNA
  54. How does a ribosome perform translation?
    ribosome reads the mRNA and assembles the amino acids
  55. Define codon
    • a set of 3 mRNA nucleotides
    • Ex. AUG (the starting codon) is a codon
  56. Define anticodon
    how tRNA attaches to mRNA while both are inside the ribosome
  57. What happens during initiation of translation?
    ribosomes assemble
  58. What happens during elongation of translation?
    amino acids are linked together
  59. What happens during termination of translation?
    everything is taken apart
  60. What are 3 possible effects of mutations?
    • help
    • harm
    • nothing
  61. What is the function of epithelial tissue?
    • protection
    • lining
    • hormone production
  62. What is the function of connective tissue?
    holds things together
  63. What is the function of muscle tissue?
    movement
  64. Epithelial tissue. What is the function of squamous tissue?
    • allows passage of materials
    • protects
  65. Epithelial tissue. What is the function of cuboidal tissue?
    • secretes
    • absorbs
    • protects
  66. Epithelial tissue. What is the function of columnar tissue?
    • absorbs
    • secrets
    • protects
  67. Connective tissue. What is the function of areolar tissue?
    wraps and cushions organs
  68. Connective tissue. What is the function of adipose tissue?
    • stores energy
    • insulates
    • cushions organs
  69. Connective tissue. What is the function of dense connective tissue?
    attaches bone to bone or bone to muscle
  70. Connective tissue. What is the function of cartilage?
    provides support and protection
  71. Connective tissue. What is the function of bone?
    support and protection
  72. Connective tissue. What is the function of blood?
    transports oxygen and carbon dioxide
  73. Muscle tissue. What is the function of skeletal muscle tissue?
    provides voluntary movement
  74. Muscle tissue. What is the function of cardiac muscle tissue?
    contracts and propels blood through the circulatory system
  75. Muscle tissue. What is the function of smooth muscle tissue?
    propels substances or objects through internal passageways
  76. What is the main function of hyaline cartilage?
    provides support and flexibility
  77. What is the main function of elastic cartilage?
    strength and elasticity
  78. What is the main function of fibrocartilage?
    withstands pressure
  79. Define endocrine glands
    secretes hormones into blood stream
  80. Define matrix
    space surrounding cells
  81. Define collagen fibers
    protein that makes up the matrix
  82. Define elastic fibers
    protein that makes up the matrix
  83. Define reticular fibers
    protein that makes up the matrix
  84. What is the main function of the integumentary system (skin)?
    protects underlying tissues
  85. What is the main function of the skeletal system?
    • attachment for muscles
    • protects organs
  86. What is the main function of the muscular system?
    moves body
  87. What is the main function of the nervous system?
    regulates and integrates body functions via neurons
  88. What is the main function of the endocrine system?
    regulates and integrates body functions via hormones
  89. What is the main function of the cardiovascular system?
    • heart and blood vessels
    • distributes blood, nutrients, removes wastes
  90. What is the main function of the lymphatic system?
    returns tissue fluids to blood
  91. What is the main function of the respiratory system?
    breathing
  92. What is the main function of the digestive system?
    breakdown of food
  93. What is the main function of the urinary system?
    maintains constant internal environment through the excretion of wastes
  94. What is the main function of the reproductive system?
    • produces and secretes hormones
    • making babies
  95. Know the dorsal and ventral cavities
    see picture
  96. Define mucous membrane
    lines passageways that are open to the exterior of the body
  97. Define serous membranes
    line the thoracic and abdominal cavities
  98. Define synovial membrane
    line the cavities of freely moveable joints such as the knee
  99. Define cutaneous membrane
    the skin, overs the outside of the body
  100. What are the functions of the skin?
    • protects
    • sensory
    • heat (hold/release)
  101. What is the epidermis made of and its function?
    • epithelial cells
    • protective barrier against environmental hazards
  102. What is the dermis and its function?
    • connective tissue
    • durable/doesnt wear away - tattoos permanent
  103. What is the hypodermis and its function?
    • connective tissue
    • cushions blows and prevents changes in body temp
  104. How does skin get its color?
    melanin
  105. What are the functions of hair?
    • protects
    • heat holding
  106. What are the functions of nails?
    • sensor
    • touch
    • grabbing things
  107. Define homeostasis
    constant internal environment
  108. What are the 3 components of a homestatic mechanism?
    • receptor
    • control center
    • effector
  109. Define receptor
    senses a condition
  110. Define control center
    brain - processes info
  111. Define effector
    carries out the action (muscles)
  112. How does the hypothalamus maintain the body's core temperature?
    • takes sensory info (cold/hot)
    • tells brain what to do (shiver/sweat)
  113. What are the 6 functions of the skeletal system?
    • support
    • movement
    • protection
    • storage of minerals
    • storage of fat
    • blood cell production
  114. Define compact bone
    forms most long bones, hard, and heavy
  115. Define spongy bone
    bone with open areas in between
  116. Define red marrow
    makes red blood cells
  117. Define yellow marrow
    fat storage
  118. What does a compact bone look like?
    • circular objects on it
  119. What does a spongy bone look like?
    • a sponge
  120. Define osteon
    functional unit of bone
  121. Define osteocytes
    bone cells
  122. Define lacuna
    little space where bone cells reside
  123. Define osteoblast
    build bone
  124. In bone formation what does the cartilage do?
    • framework for bone
    • allows bone to grow
    • its replaced by bone
  125. The steps in healing a bone are?
    • cartilage forms around the break
    • bone forms
    • bone is shaped
  126. What is the rold of fibroblasts?
    makes cartilage
  127. What is the axial skeleton?
    • middle of body
    • skull, spine and ribs
  128. What is the appendicular skeleton?
    • arms and legs
  129. Know the steps of bone formation
    • 1. cartilage bone formed
    • 2. osteoblasts form a collar around the cartilage
    • 3. Cartilage begins to hollow, spongy bone fills in, blood vessels begin to form
    • 4. region of bone expands
    • 5. secondary centers of bone form at ends of bone
    • 6. cartilage is only at the surfaces of ends of bones and the growth plate
  130. Know the vertebral column
  131. What is the function of intervertebral disks?
    • protects
    • shock absorbtion
  132. What is the function of the rib cage?
    protects
  133. What is the function of the pectoral girdle?
    helps move arms
  134. What is the function of the pelvic girdle in men and women?
    • men - movement
    • women - movement and childbirth
  135. Define fibrous joints
    in skull - 2 bones glued together
  136. Define cartilaginous joints
    vertebrae - 2 bones seperated by cartilage
  137. Define synovial joints
    knee - have synovial fluid in them

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