Blood and Lymphatic Systems

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halvob
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40378
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Blood and Lymphatic Systems
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2011-04-14 09:56:08
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Chapter 6
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  1. blast/o
    germ or bud
  2. chrom/o, chromat/o
    color
  3. chyl/o
    juice
  4. cyt/o
    cell
  5. hem/o, hemat/o
    blood
  6. immun/o
    safe
  7. lymph/o
    clear fluid
  8. morph/o
    form
  9. myel/o
    bone marrow or spinal cord
  10. phag/o
    eat or swallow
  11. plas/o
    formation
  12. reticul/o
    a net
  13. splen/o
    spleen
  14. thromb/o
    clot
  15. thym/o
    thymus gland
  16. AIDS
    acquired immunodeficiency syndrome
  17. ALT
    alanine aminotransferase (enzyme)
  18. AST
    aspartate aminotransferase (enzyme)
  19. BMP
    basic metabolic panel
  20. BUN
    blood urea nitrogen
  21. CBC
    complete blood count
  22. CMP
    comprehensive metabolic panel
  23. CO2
    carbon dioxide
  24. CT
    computed tomography
  25. ESR
    erthrocyte sedimentation rate
  26. HCT or Hct
    hematocrit
  27. HGB or Hgb
    hemoglobin
  28. HIV
    human immunodeficiency virus
  29. MCH
    mean corpuscular (cell) hemoglobin
  30. MCHC
    mean corpuscular (cell) hemoglobin concentration
  31. MCV
    mean corpuscular (cell) volume
  32. NK
    natural killer (cell)
  33. PET
    positron-emission tomography
  34. PLT
    platelet count
  35. PMN
    polymorphonuclear (leukocyte)
  36. PT
    prothrombin time
  37. PTT
    partial thromboplastin time
  38. RBC
    red blood cell; red blood count
  39. WBC
    white blood cell; white blood count
  40. plasma
    liquid portion of the blood and lymph; contains water, proteins, and cellular components
  41. serum
    liquid portion of the blood that remains after clotting
  42. erythrocyte
    red blood cell; transports oxygen and carbon dioxide
  43. hemoglobin
    the protein-iron cmpd in erythrocytes that transports oxygen and carbon dioxide
  44. leukocyte
    white blood cell; protects the body from harmful invading substances
  45. granulocytes
    a group of leukocytes containing granules in their cytoplasm
  46. neutrophil
    a granular leukocyte, named for the neutral stain of its granules, that fights infection by swallowing bacteria
  47. polymorphonuclear (PMN) leukocyte
    another term for neutrophil, referring to the many segments in its nucleus
  48. eosinophil
    a granular leukocyte, named for the rose-colored stain of its granules, that increases in allergic and some infectious reactions
  49. basophil
    a granular leukocyte, named for the dark stain of its granules, that brings anticoagulant substances to inflamed tissues
  50. agranulocytes
    a group of leukocytes w/out granules in their nuclei
  51. lymphocyte
    an agranulocytic leukocyte that is active in the process of immunity; the three categories of lymphocytes are T cells (thympus-dependent), B cells (bone marrow-derived), and natural killer (NK) cells
  52. monocyte
    an agranulocytic leukocyte that performs phagocytosis to fight infection
  53. platelets
    thrombocytes; cell fragments in the blood that are essential for blood clotting
  54. thymus
    primary gland of the lymphatic system, located within the mediastinum, that helps to maintain the body's immune response by producing T lymphocytes
  55. spleen
    organ between the stomach and the diaphragm that filters out agin blood cells, removes cellular debris by performing phagocytosis, and provides and environment for lymphocytes to initiate immune repsonses
  56. lymph
    fluid that is circulated through the lymph vessels
  57. lymph capillaries
    microscopic vessles that draw lymph from tissues to the lymph vessels
  58. lymph vessels
    vessels that receive lymph from the lymph capillaries and circulate it to the lymph nodes
  59. lacteals
    specialized lymph vessels in the small intestine that absorb fat into the bloodstream
  60. chyle
    white or pale yellow substance in lymph that contains fatty substances absorbed by the lacteals
  61. lymph nodes
    many small, oval structures that filter lymph from the lymph vessels; major locations include the cervical, axillary, and inguinal regions
  62. lymph ducts
    collecting channels that carry lymph from the lymph nodes to the veins
  63. right lymphatic duct
    receives lymph from the right upper party of the body
  64. thoracic duct
    receives lymph from the left side of the head, neck, chest, abdomen, left arm and lower extremities
  65. immunity
    process fo disease protection induced by exposure to an antigen
  66. antigen
    a substance that, when introduced into the body, causes the formation of antibodies against it
  67. antibody
    a substance produced by the body that destroys or inactivates an antigen that has entered the body
  68. active immunity
    a long-lasting immunity that results from stimulation the body to produce its own antibodies; developed either naturally, in response to an infection, or artificially, in response to the administration of a vaccine
  69. passive immunity
    a short-lasting immunity that results from foreign antibodies that are conveyed either naturally, through the placenta to a fetus, or artificially, by injection of a serum containing antibodies
  70. microcytosis
    presence of small red blood cells
  71. macrocytosis
    presence of large red blood cells
  72. anisocytosis
    presence of red blood cells of unequal size
  73. poikilocytosis
    presence of large, irregularyly shaped red blood cells
  74. reticulocytosis
    an increased number of immature erythrocytes in the blood
  75. erythropenia
    an abnormally reduced number of red blood cells
  76. lymphocytopenia
    an abnormall reduced number of lymphocytes
  77. neutropenia
    a decreased number of neutrophils
  78. thrombocytopenia
    an abnormally decreased number of platelets in the blood impairing the clotting process
  79. hemolysis
    breakdown of the red blood cell membrane
  80. immunocompromised
    impaired immunologive defenses caused by an immunodeficiency disorder or by therapy with immunosuppressive agents
  81. immunosuppression
    impaired ability to provide an immune response
  82. lymphadenopathy
    enlarged (diseased) lymph nodes
  83. splenomegaly
    enlargement of the spleen
  84. acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)
    a syndrome caused by HIV that renders immune cells ineffective, permitting opportunistic infections, malignancies, and neurologic diseases to develop; transmitted sexually or through contaminated blood.
  85. anemia
    a condition of reduced numbers of red blood cells, hemoglobin, or packed red cells in the blood, resulting in a diminished ability of red blood cells to transport oxygen to the tissues
  86. aplastic anemia
    a normocytic-normochromic type of anemia characterized by the failure of bone marrow to produce red blood cells
  87. iron deficiency anemia
    a microcytic-hypochromic type of anemia characterized by a lack of iron that affects the production of hemoglobin and is characterized by small red blood cells containing low amounts of hemoglobin
  88. pernicious anemia
    a macrocytic-normochromic type of anemia characterized by an inadequate supply of vitamin B12, causing red blood cells to become large, varied in shape, and reduced in number
  89. autoimmune disease
    any disorder characterized by abnormal function of the immune system that causes the body to produce antibodies against itself, resulting in tissue destruction or loss of function, rheumatoid arthritis and lupus are examples of autoimmune diseases
  90. erythroblastosis fetalis
    a disorder that results from the incompatibility of a fetus with Rh-positive blood and a mother with Rh-negative blood, causing red blood cell destruction in the fetus; a blood transfusion is necessary to save the fetus
  91. Rh factor
    presence or lack of antigens on the surface or red blood cells, which causes a reaction between Rh-positive blood and Rh-negative blood
  92. Rh positive
    presence of antigen
  93. Rh negative
    absence of antigens
  94. hemochromatosis
    hereditary disorder with an excessive buildup of iron deposits in the body
  95. hemophilia
    a group of hereditary bleeding disorders cuased by a defect in clotting factors necessary for the coagulation of blood
  96. leukemia
    chronic or acute malignant (cancerous) disease of the blood-forming organs, characterized by an abnormal leukocytes in the blood and bone marrow
  97. myelodysplasia
    disorder within the bone marrow characterized by a proliferation of abnormal stem cells (cells that give rise to different types of blood cells); usually develops into specific type of leukemia
  98. lymphoma
    any neoplastice disorder of lymph tissue, usually malignant, as in Hodgkin disease
  99. metastasis
    process by which cancer cells are spread by blood or lymph circulation to a distant organ; plural form, metastases, indicates spreading to two or more distant sites
  100. mononucleosis
    condition caused by the Epstein-Barr virus and characterized by an increase in mononuclear cells (monocytes and lymphocytes) in the blood along with enlarged lymph nodes (lymphadenopathy), fatigue, and sore throat (pharyngitis)
  101. polycythemia
    increased number of erythrocytes and hemoglobin in the blood
  102. septicemia
    systemic disease caused by infection with microorganisms and their toxins in circulating blood
  103. phlebotomy/ venipuncture
    incision into or puncture of a vein to withdraw blood for testing.
  104. blood chemistry
    test of the fluid portion of the blood to measure the amounts of its chemical constituents
  105. blood chemistry panels
    specialized batteries of automated blood chemistry tests performed on a single sample of blood; used as a general screen for disease or to target specific organs or conditions
  106. basic metabolic panel (BMP)
    battery of tests used as a general screen for disease; includes tests for calcium, carbon dioxide, chloride, creatine, glucose, potassium, sodium, and blood urea nitrogen (BUN)
  107. comprehensive metabolic panel (CMP)
    tests performed in addition to the basic panel for expanded screening: albumin, bilirubin, alkaline phosphatase, protein, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and asparate aminotransferase (AST)
  108. blood culture
    test to determine if infection is present in the bloodstream by isolating a specimen of blood in an environment that encourages the growth of the microorganisms; the speciment is observed, and the organisms that grow in the culture are identified
  109. CD4 cell count
    a measure of the number of CD4 cells in the blood; used in monitoring the course of HIV and in timing the treatment of AIDS; the normal adult range is 600-1500 cells in a given volume of blood
  110. erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR)
    timed test that meausres the rate at which red blood cells settle through a volume of plasma
  111. partial thromboplastin time (PTT)
    test to determine coagulation defects, such as platelet disorders
  112. thromboplastin
    substance present in tissues, platelets, and leukocytes that is necessary for coagulation
  113. prothrombin time (PT)
    test to measure activity of prothrombin in the blood
  114. prothrombin
    protein substance in the blood that is essential ot the clotting process
  115. complete blood count (CBC)
    a commom lab blood test performed as a screen of general health or for diagnostic purposes and typically includes the componenet tetsts that follow; test results are usually reported along with normal values so that the clinician can interpret the results based on the instrumentation used by the lab; normal ranges also may vary depending on the region and climate
  116. white blood count (WBC)
    a count of the number of white blood cells in a given colume of blood obtained via manual or automated lab methods
  117. red blood count (RBC)
    a count of the number of red blood cells in a given colume of blood obtained via manual or automated lab methods
  118. hemoglobin (HGB or Hgb)
    a test to determine the blood level of hemoglobin (expressed in grams)
  119. hematocrit (HCT or Hct)
    a measurement of the percentage of packed red blood cells in a given volume of blood
  120. blood indices
    calculations of RBC, HGB, and HCT results to determine the avg size, hemoglobin concentration, and content of red blood cells to classify an anemia
  121. mean corpuscular (cell) columbe (MCV)
    calculation of the volume (size) of individual red blood cells using HCT and RBC results MCV=HCT/RBC
  122. mean corpuscular (cell) hemoglobin (MCH)
    calculation of the content (weight) of hemoglobin in the avg red blood cell using HGB and RBC results: MCH=HBG/RBC
  123. mean corpuscular (cell) hemoglobin concentration (MCHC)
    calculation of the avg hemoglobin concentration in each red blood cell using HGB and HCT results: MCHC=HGB/HCT
  124. differential count
    • determination of the number of each type of white blood cell (leukocyte) in a stained blood smear; each type is counted and reported as a percentage or the total examined
    • lymphocytes 25-33%
    • monocytes 3-7%
    • neutrophils 54-75%
    • eosinophils 1-3%
    • basophils 0-1%
  125. red cell morphology
    as part of identifying and counting the white blood cells, the condition, size, and shape of red blood cells in the background of the smeared slide are noted
  126. platelet count (PLT)
    calculation of the number of thrombocytes in the blood; the normal adult range is 150,000-450,000 platelets in a given volume of blood
  127. bone marrow aspiration
    needle aspiration of bone marrow tissue for pathologive examination
  128. bone marrow biopsy
    pathologic examination of bone marrow tissue
  129. lymphangiogram
    an x-ray image of a lymph node or vessel obtained after injection of a contrast medium
  130. computed tomography (CT)
    full body x-ray CT images are used to detect tumors and cancers such as lymphoma
  131. positron-emission tomography (PET)
    scanning technique combing nuclear mdicine and computed tomography technology to produce images of anatomy and metabolic function within the body; useful in determining the recurrence of cancers or to measure response to therapy; commonly used in evaluation lymphoma
  132. bone marrow transplant
    transplantation of healthy bone marrow from a compatible donor to a diseased recipient to stimulate blood cell production
  133. lymphadenectomy
    removal of a lymph node
  134. lymphadenotomy
    incision into a lymph node
  135. lymph node dissection
    removal of possible cancer-caryying lymph nodes for pathologic exam
  136. splenectomy
    removal of the spleen
  137. thymectomy
    removal of the thymus gland
  138. blood transfusion
    introduction of blood products into the circulation of a recipient whose blood volume is reduced or deficient in some manner
  139. autologous blood
    blood donated by and stored for a patient for future personal use
  140. homologous blood
    blood voluntarily donated by any person for transfusion to a compatible recipient
  141. blood component therapy
    transfusion of a specific blood component, such as packed red blood cells, platelets, or plasma
  142. cross-matching
    method of matching a donor's blood to the recipient by mixing a sample in a test tube to determine compatibility
  143. chemotherapy
    treatment of malignancies, infections, and other diseases with chemical agents to destroy selected cells or to impair their ability to reproduce
  144. immunotherapy
    use of biologic agents to prevent or treat disease by stimulating the body's own defense mechanisms, as seen in the treatment of AIDs, cancer, or allergy
  145. plasmapheresis
    removal of plasma from the body with separation and extraction of specific elements followed by reinfusion
  146. anticoagulant
    a drug that prevents clotting of the blood
  147. hemostatic
    a drug that stops the flow of blood within the vessels
  148. vasoconstrictor
    a drug that causes a narrowing of blood vessels, thereby decreasing blood flow
  149. vasodilator
    a drug that cuases dilation of blood vessels, thereby increasing blood flow

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