Pathology 2

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Pathology 2
2010-10-08 15:27:00

OUHSC Pathology 2
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  1. Neoplasia
    • -new growth of abnormal tissue
    • -serves no physiologic function
    • -has the ability to replicate without growth factors
    • -75%-90% of human neoplasia is due to enviromental factors
    • -neoplastic transformations involves somatic mutations of DNA

  2. "tumors" are denotes by what suffix
  3. carcinoma
    epithelial malignancies
  4. sarcoma
    mesenchymal/ connective tissue malignancies
  5. melanoma
    malignant neoplasm of melanocytes
  6. lymphoma
    malignant neoplasm
  7. glioma
    malignant neoplasms of supporting tissue of the CNS
  8. blastoma
    malignant tumors arising from early, partially differentiated embryonal tissue
  9. teratoma
    neoplasm which contains cell from more than one embryonic germ cell layer and may be benign or malignant
  10. hamartoma
    is a non-neoplastic "tumor" that represents abnormal overgrowth or differentiation of cells native to the tissue of origin
  11. choristoma
    refers to the presence of normal tissue in an abnormal location
  12. hematoma
    coagulated blood non-neoplastic
  13. granuloma
    chronic inflammation
  14. squamous
    skin and mucosal tissue
  15. adeno
    grandular and all other epithelium except: squamous and transitional
  16. transitional
    urinary tract
  17. fibro
    fibrous connective tissue
  18. leiomyo
    smooth muscle
  19. rhabdomyo
    skeletal muscle
  20. lipo-
    adipose tissue
  21. chondro
  22. osteo
  23. hemangio-
    blood vessel
  24. lymphangio
    lymphatic vessel
  25. scirrhous
  26. medullary
  27. colloid
    gelatinous, mucinous
  28. cystic
    fluid or gas filled space
  29. papillary
    forming "nipple-like" projections
  30. villous
    forming shaggy, "finger-like" projections
  31. tubular
    forming cylindrical tubules
  32. cribriform
    pierced by small holes

  33. Benign v. Malignant
    • -cellular morphology
    • -cellular differentiation
    • -rate of growth
    • -manner of growth
    • -ability to metastasize
  34. Benign v. Malignant
    -Cellular morphology
    • - nuclear pleomorphism (due to alterations in the cell cytoskeleton
    • -increased nuclear/ cytoplamic ratio
    • -not well defined boundry
    • - loss of normal function
    • - loss of organization
  35. Benign v. Malignant
    -cellular differentiation
    • -refers to the extent to which neoplastic cells resemble their cell of origin histologically
    • -malignant cells: show abnormalities in the number or structure of chromosomes
  36. Benign v. Malignant
    -rate of growth
    • Benign: normal gowth or regress
    • Malignant: growth rate is faster, and usually does not regress or cease growth
  37. Benign v. Malignant
    -manner of growth
    • -benign: grow by expansion and tend to compress the surrounding tissue into a capsule
    • -malignant: growth by infiltration and invasion of the surrounding tissue and not confined
  38. Benign v. malignant
    • Bening: does NOT metastasize
    • Malignant: ALL have metastatic potential
  39. How does metastsis occur:
    • Lymphatic dissemination: most common, systemic disease (carcinomas)
    • Hematogenous dissemination- characteristic of connective tissue neoplasms (sarcoma)
    • Transcoelomic seeding-coelomic (peritoneal, pleural) surfaces. spread by touch
    • Traumatic seeding-cutting into malignant tumors may detach and carry small portions of the tumor to other sites
  40. Clinical significance -anatomic location
    Benign and malignant tumors can both have serious affect due to location
  41. Clinical Significance- local effects
    Both benign and malignant neoplasms may cause compression of surrounding structures.
  42. Clinical Significance- systemic effect
    Some tumors (benign or malignant) may produce hormones or hormone-like substances that can have systemic effects
  43. Intrinsic factors that contribute to neoplasias
    • genetics
    • race
    • gender
    • age
  44. External factors that can increase risk of neoplasms
    • sun exposure
    • radiation
    • food
    • smoking
  45. Neoplasia
    Carcinogenic Agents- chemicals
    • Initiation: DNA changes
    • Promotion: growth stimulation
    • Conversion: promoter independence
    • Progression: continues DNA changes
  46. Neoplasis
    -Carcinogenic Agents- radiation
    • Produces free radicals
    • alters protein
    • DNA damage
    • -point mutation
    • -transclutions
    • -strand breaks
  47. Neoplasia
    Carcinogenic Agents- Viruses
    • Both DNA and RNA viruses
    • Transduction
    • Insertinal mutagenesis
  48. Features of Malignant Cells
    • increased stem cell renewal
    • loss of contact inhibition
    • anchorage independent growth
    • immortality
    • ability to invade and metastasize
    • transplantibility
  49. Proto-oncogenes v. cellular oncogenes
    Proto-oncogenes are normal. Proto-oncogenes have the potential of being converted to oncogenes that can promote excessive or inappropriate cell proliferation.
  50. Tumor Suppressor Genes
    • serves to protect the sell from the events leading to neoplastic transformation
    • without this regulation, neoplasms may arise
    • ex) RAB-1 and p53
    • -p53 check DNA sequences before translation to make sure it has the right coding
  51. Inherited v. acquired neoplasia
    if a mutated allele is inherited, it is present in all cells and there is a greater tendency to develop multi tumors
  52. Neoplastic Transformation
    • multistep process
    • sequential activation of oncogenes
  53. Tumor Growth
    • cell to replicate rather than to continue to differentiate
    • -Growth fraction: degree of imbalance between cell production and cell loss (lower GF, harder to get rid of)
    • -Angiogenesis: tumor must have vascularization
    • -Double timing: growth rate slows down when increasing in size
  54. Tumor specific antigens
    antigens not associated with normal cells
  55. tumor associated antigens
    antigens are found in normal cells but which are present in higher concentrations in tumor cells
  56. Grading
    • pathologic determination of tumor
    • -based on degree of differentiation, number of mitoses
  57. Staging
    • clinical AND pathologic determination of tummor aggressiveness
    • based on size, regional lyph node status, metastatic disease
  58. A malignant tumor arising from connective tissue would be called what?
  59. Which of the following indicate a neoplasm is growning
  60. Anti-oncogenes represent
    -genes altered by chemical mutation
    -genes altered by viral mutations
    -genes altered by radiation mutation
    -normal genes that induce neoplasia
    -normal genes that prevent neoplasia
    normal genes that prevent neoplasia
  61. which of the following statements concerning benign tumurs are true
    -they are usually slow growing
    -they usually grow by expansion and compression fo the surrounding tissue
  62. Each of the following is a benign neoplasm except:
  63. Althought many factors probably play a role in the development of neoplasia, the basic underlying mechanism most like relates
    -altered genetic function
    -hormonal immune
    -viral infection
    altered genetic function
  64. which of the following features most accurately distingushes a malignant neoplasm from a benign neoplasm
    -anatomic location
    -cytoplasmic differentiation
    -presence of metastases
    -production of functional hormones
    -rate of growth
    presence of metastases
  65. staging of malignant neoplasms refers to the determination of
    -degree of differentiation
    -extent of spread
    -nuclear pleomorphism
    -rate of growth
    -structural patterens
    extent of spread
  66. Which of the following terms describes a primary malignant neoplasm
  67. Which of the following is not considered to be a true neoplasm
  68. All of the follwoing statements about benign tumors are true except
    -they are usually slow growing
    -attain a high degree of structural differentiation and closely resemble their tissue of origin
    -they can metastasize
    -they usually grow by expansion and compression of surrounding tissues to form a capsule
    they can metastasize
  69. Which of the following would be an appropriate name for a benign tumor of epithelial origin which forms cyctic spaces and glandular structures
    -papillary adenosarcoma
    -follicular cytosarcoma
    -villous cystadenosarcoma
  70. Which of the following is a malignant tumor of epithelial origin
  71. Which of the following features is most characteristic of a neoplasm
    -autonomous growth
    -increased cascularity
    -large size
    -rapid growth
    autonomous growth
  72. All of the following are clinical manifestations of bronchogenic carcinomas except:
    -acute respiratory failure
    -weight loss
    -hormone production
    -bronchial obstruction
    acute respiratory failure
  73. Lung cancer is
    -less common than colon and rectal cancer
    -is more common in males tha in females
    is more common in males than in females