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What is water polution?
The presence of any foreigh substance in the water. It degrades the quality as to constitute a hazard or impair the usefulness of the water.
What is water quality?
- It refers to:
- 1. Physical Characteristics; temperature, clarity ect..
- 2. Chemical Characteristics; Presence and amount of organic and inorganic substances in solution.
- 3. Biological Characteristics; Includes the identity, impact and inventory of organisms present.
What is contaminated water?
Water which is so badly polluted that it is toxic to higher mammals, including humans.
American Medical Association recognizes 8 consequences of water pollution, what are they?
1. Disease transmission through infection.
2. Poisoning of humbas and other animals.
3. Detrimental effects on aquatic life.
4. Creation of objectionable orders adn unsightliness.
5. Cause of unsatisfactory quality of heated water.
6. Impairment of shellfish culture.
7. Excess mineralization.
8. Destruction of aesthetic values.
What are the classes/categories of pollutants?
1. Sewage and other oxygen demanding wastes.
2. Infectious agents.
3. Organic chemical exotics.
4. Other chemical and mineral substances.
6. Radioactive wastes.
7. Thermo polution or Heat.
Coastal waters are the most vulnerable to pollution of the ocean regions as a result of?
1. Humans tend to live near the coast.
2. Coastal waters ar shallow-pollutants are more concentrated in a thinner layer of water.
3. Receive the runoff from the land, which is a main source of natural and humankind pollution.
4. Coastal waters are usually the most biologically active and productive.
What is Biological magnification?
- Tendency of various pollutants to become concentrated in tissues of organisms.
- i.e. strength of the pollutant increasing as it goes from an oyster up the food chain to a nursing mom.
Area between poorly fitting soil particles.
Soil has series of passageways for water to enter. Soil has other areas for air and water to enter such as cracks and cavities left from decaying root.
When rain falls too rapidly to allow for soil infiltration, the excess water flows as a surface layer down slope.
Ground water zone
Gravity percolation carries excess water to an area.
Excess water leaves this area via stream flow or from natual springs. No pore spaces, ground is saturated.
- Streams fed only by overland flow, such as with desert areas, run intermittently with channes being dry much of the year.
- Basically it is only a stream when it rains.
Streams which flow throughout the year. They get much of their water from ground water seepage.
Higher the graded stream....
the more load it can carry. It is not just carring water.
Rock mass or layer that will readily transmit or holds ground water.
The upper most layer (plane) of the ground water.
What are the four forms of grain/sediment transport via streams?
3. Intermittent suspension
What is Traction transportation via a stream?
Traction - Grains larger than sand moving by sliding and rolling along in the water.
What is Saltation transport via streams?
Saltation - movement of the grains by short hops and leaps and then falling back to the bed.
What is Intermittent suspension via a stream?
Intermittent suspension - Grans temporarily in suspension (held by water) as with saltation, but eventuallly fall back.
What is Suspenstion via a stream?
Suspenstion - Suspended grains (load) material is carried up and held in the main flow of the water for a long period of time.
What are Three types of stream loads (material [sediment] which stream carries or moves)?
1. Bed load
2. Suspended load
3. Wash load
Of the three stream loads, what is bed load?
Stream bed load - This is the material making up the bottome of the channel of the stream. It is also termed channel lag. It is composed primarily of gravel or sand that is moved by traction, saltation and intermittent suspension.
Of the three stream loads, what is Suspended load?
Suspended load - Some of this load is derived from bed material but most is composed of material that is of much finer grained.
Of the three stream loads, what is Wash Load?
Wash load - Dissolved load, composed of very fine sediments in continuous suspension.
The ability of a current of water (flowing stream) to transport material.
This is measured by the quanity the stream can carry pass a given point and unit of time.
As soon as sediment transport is initiated, the stream bed is molded into a variety of bed froms: ripples, sand waves, dunes or megaripples, plain bed, antidunes and chutes and pools.
Lower flow regime?
Water surface is not affected by the sand below.
Upper flow regime
The waves of the water are in phase with the bed froms. (They follow the "dunes")
- Volume of water passing through a given cross section (of a stream) in a given unit of time. Expressed as cubic feet per second (cfs)
- Q = AV Where Q = Stream discharge
- V = Mean velocity
- A = Cross section area of stream
Branched network of stream channels and adjacent land slpoes bounded by a drainage divide and converging to a single channel at the drainage outlet.
Total land surface occupied by a drainage system. It is bounded by a drainage divide, also called a watershed.
What are the 3 Drainage patterns?
Explain a trellis drainage pattern and its three forms
Occurs on eroded folds such as te folded mountains of the Appalachians or newly emerged coastal plains.
Subsequen stream - Stream that develops its course by steam erosion along an area of weaker rock.
Consequent stream - Stream that takes its course down teh slope of an initial landform such as a newly emerged coastal plain.
Cuesta - Erosional landform developed on resistant strata taking the from of low ridge on hill belt with one side steeply sloping and the other side being gentle.
Explain Dendritic Drainage pattern
Treelike, branched pattern. Smaller streams follow a wide variety of directions showing not dominant trend.
Explain a Radial Drainage pattern.
Stream pattern consisting of streams radiating outward from a highland or central peak such as the dome of a volcano.