Dental Radiology ch. twenty five
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Of all the film placements, which one is the most likely to elicit the gag reflex?
The maxillary molar film
Why is it important to have proper patient and equipment preparations in regards to a sensative gag reflex?
to limit the amount of time the film remains in the mouth
What are the precipitating factors responsible for initiating the gag reflex?
- psychologenic stimuli
- tactile stimuli
What areas are most likely to elicit the gag reflex?
- soft palate
- lateral posterior third of tongue
What is the proper exposure sequencing in preventing the gag reflex
- start with anterior films
- move to premolars
- then to molars
What are the two reactions that occur prior to the gag reflex?
- cessation of respiration
- contraction of the muscles in the throat and abdomen
strong involuntary effort to vomit
retching that is elicited by stimulation of the sensitive tissues of the soft palate region. It is a protective mechanism of the body that serves to clear the airway
What attitudes should the dental radiographer convey to the patient?
- a confident attitude
- patience, tolerance, and understanding
- reassuring to the patient
What must the radiographer be aware of to effectively manage the patient with a hypersensative gag reflex?
- operator attitude
- patient and equipment preparations
- exposing sequence
- film placement and technique
- helpful hints for preventing the gag reflex
What steps are important to remember in following proper film placement and technique in regards to a pt with gag reflex?
- each film must be placed and exposed as quickly as possible
- avoid sliding the film along the palate
- demonstrate film placement before actual placement
List 6 helpful hints in reducing the gag reflex
- never suggest gagging
- reassure the pt.
- suggest breathing-deeply through the nose
- try to distract the patient
- try to reduce tactile stimuli
- use topical anesthetic
physical or mental impairment that substantially limits one or more of an individuals major lifetime activities
problems with vision, hearing, or mobility
proper communication with vision impairment
- using clear verbal communications and keep the patient informed
- never gesture to another individual infront of a blind person
proper communication with hearing impairment
- ask caretaker to act as an interpreter
- used gestures or written instructions
- face patient and speak clearly and slowly
proper care with mobility impairment
- assist in transfering patient to dental chair
- sometimes perform procedures with pt in wheel chair
- ask care taker to assist in holding radiographs, providing them with a lead apron and thyroid collar
substantial impairment of mental or physical functioning that occurs before the age of 22 and is of indefinite duration
examples of developmental disabilitys
- cerebral palsy
- epilepsy and other neuropathies
- mental retardation
What are some helpful hints in treating a pt with a disability?
- don't ask personel questions about a disability
- offer assistance to a person with a disability
- talk directly to the person with a disability
examples of pts with specific dental needs
is a child, derived from the greek work pedia meaning child
what must the dental radiographer be aware of in treating a pediatric patient?
- prescribing of radiographs
- pt and equipment preparations
- recommended techniques
- pt managment
What does the prescribing of radiographs for pediatric pts depend on?
age and cooperation
What special attention must be devoted to the pediatric patient in regards to proper patient and equipment preparation?
- explanation of procedure (blanket, camera, picture)
- lead apron must be used
- exposure factors reduced
- film size (0,1,2)
- occlusal (2 or occlusal film)
What are some helpful hints for managing a pediatric patient?
- confident, patient, and understanding
- show and tell
- reassure the patient
- demonstrate behavior
- request assistance
- postpone examination
the branch of dentistry concerned with the diagnosis and treatment of diseases of the dental pulp within the tooth. usually involves the removal of the dental pulp from the pulp chamber and canals within the tooth, and then filling up the empty pulp chamber and canals with materials such as gutta percha or silver points
one who has undergone root canal therapy
What is the technique of exposure recommended in an endodontic patient?
pt without teeth
Why does an edentulous pt need a radiographic exam?
- detect the presence of root tips, impacted teeth, and lesions (cysts, tumors)
- identify objects embedded in bone
- establish the position of normal anantomic land marks (mental foramen) relative to the crest of alveolar ridge
- observe the quantity and quality of bone that is present
what types of radiographic exams might the edentulous pt have?
- combination of periapical and occlusal
What is the most common radiographic exam for edentulous patients?q
When will you use periapical method in edentulous pts?
if pano isn't available, or if anything out of the ordinary is noticed on a pano
What are some tips in using periapical examination in edentulous pts?
- use cotton rolls for paralleling technique
- fomr should be positioned so that 1/3 or it extends beyond the edentulous ridge
How many films are used in the occlusal and periapical examination?
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