Chemistry 3

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Chemistry 3
2010-10-16 15:02:32

Chemistry 3 Study guide
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  1. Chemical Bonding occurs in two different ways;
    Ionic bonds and Covalent bonds
  2. Ionic Bonding
    also known as electrovalent bonding an ionic bond involves the transfer of electrons from one atom to another
  3. what happens when you take electrons away from one atom and give them to another?
    it leaves you with 2 oppositely charged ions
  4. What happens when you have two opposites?
    they attract eachother this attraction "bonds" the two atoms together
  5. = or -> means
    yeilds or produces
  6. most metals & non metals unite,
    chemically by ionic bonds
  7. Covalent bonding
    covalent bonds involve the sharing of electrons between combing atoms
  8. having 8 electrons in it's outermost shell makes it
  9. when two electrons or one pair of electrons is being shared it is known as a
    signle covalent
  10. oxygen exists in nature with a covalent bond also
    sharing total "8"
  11. when four electrons or two pair of electrons are being shared it is known as a
    • double covalent bond
    • O=O or formula O2
  12. Nitrogen also exists in nature with a
    covalent bond
  13. when six electrons or three pair of electrons are being shared it is known as a
    • triple covalent bond
    • N=N or N2
  14. Compounds
    • NaHCO3
    • Na2CO3
    • Ca(OH)2
    • Na2B4O7
    • NaOH
    • KOH
    • NaCl
    • H2O
  15. NaHCO3
    • Sodium hydrogen carbonate
    • Sodium bicarbonate
    • "baking soda"
  16. Na2CO3
    • Sodium carbonate
    • "washing soda"
  17. Ca(OH)2
    • Calcium hydroxide
    • "lime"
  18. Na2B4O7
    • Sodium tetraborate
    • "Borax"
  19. NaOH
    • Sodium hydroxide
    • "Caustic soda"
    • "Lye'
  20. KOH
    • Potassium hydroxide
    • "Potash"
  21. NaCl
    • Sodium chloride
    • "table salt"
  22. H2O
    • Dihydrogen monoxide
    • Hydrogen hydroxide
    • "water"
  23. Oxidation Numbers
  24. oxidation-reduction define:
  25. Oxidation
    • 1)
    • 2)
    • 3)
  26. Reduction
    • 1)
    • 2)
    • 3)
  27. Slow Oxidation
  28. Example of Slow Oxidation
    the rusting of metal is an example of slow oxidation
  29. Rapid Oxidation
  30. Example of Rapid Oxidation
    the burning of wood is an example of rapid oxidation
  31. spontaneous combustion
  32. example of the phenomena of spontaneous combustion
    the sudden explosion of grain silos
  33. decay
  34. putrefaction
  35. chemical equation
    is a combination of chemical symbols and formulas used as a shorthand way to represent the reactants and products in a chemical change
  36. "in a chemical reaction, matter is neither created nor destroyed, only changed in form"
    meanin the same amounts of the substances are there- they are only changed in form
  37. the -> is used
    instead of an equal sign to indicated the direction of the reaction
  38. "yields" or "produces"
  39. catalyst
  40. CO2 + H2O ------> (chlorophyll) C6H12O6
  41. Equilibrium in terms of a chemical reaction...
  42. Types of Chemical Reactions
  43. metathesis reaction is
  44. a neutralization reaction
  45. all four classes of inorganic compounds
    • 1)
    • 2)
    • 3)
    • 4)
  46. Balancing Chemical Equations
  47. Hydrogen
    the first element to appear on the Periodic Table of the Elements
  48. the word hydrogen means
  49. pure molecular hydrogen is a
    colorless, odorless and tasteless gas
  50. pure hydrogen gas can be obtained in a number of ways;
    • 1.
    • 2.
    • 3.
  51. oxygen
  52. pure oxygen gas can be obtained in a number of ways;
    • 1.
    • 2.
    • 3.
  53. compounds which contain oxygen are called
  54. halogen elements
  55. the most typical members of this group are
    clorine, bromine, flourine and iodine
  56. clorine, bromine, flourine and iodine elements have a number of similarities:
    • 1.
    • 2.
    • 3.
  57. Nitrogen
    • a component of the air
    • a constituent in many organic compounds
  58. nitorgen occurs in the air as a
    diatomic element
  59. nitrogen based organic compounds readily combine with formaldehyde to produce a decomposition resistant substances called
  60. unique compounds=water
    described as colorless, odorless and tasteless substance
  61. water in chemical language it is known by two names
  62. water is recognized as the
    universal solvent
  63. forms of impure water:
    • 1. polluted water
    • 2. turbid water
    • 3. potable water
    • 4. contaminated water
    • 5. hard water
    • 6. soft water
  64. hydrogen peroxide
  65. ammonia
    ammonia molecule contains one atom of nitrogen and three atoms of hydrogen, when proteins decompose, ammonia is produced
  66. when a dead body is being embalmed
    the decomposing tissues are inhibited from further decomposition by adding formaldehyde based embalming fluids
  67. hydrogen ion concentration (pH)
    • the measure of the realitive strength of an acid or base
    • measures how many hydrogen ions (H+1) are present in a solution
    • measured on a scale of zero (0) to 14
  68. it the pH (or hydrogen ion concentration) is below 7 then the solution is said to be an
    acid (or acidic) the further below 7 th pH is the stronger the acid
  69. the pH (or hydrogen ion concentration) is above 7, then the solution is said to be
    a base ( basic or alkaline) the further above 7 the pH is the stronger the base
  70. pH of 7 is
  71. the pH of blood (during life) is approximately
    7.3 to 7.4
  72. acids
    derived from the latin word "Acidus" which means sour therefore they have a sour taste