Lecture Exam 2

Card Set Information

Author:
Anonymous
ID:
40489
Filename:
Lecture Exam 2
Updated:
2010-10-07 14:57:25
Tags:
cells dna
Folders:

Description:
cells, cell metabolism
Show Answers:

Home > Flashcards > Print Preview

The flashcards below were created by user Anonymous on FreezingBlue Flashcards. What would you like to do?


  1. CELL MEMBRANE
    • selectively permiable
    • cell boundry
    • phospholipid bilayer
    • cholesterol
  2. CYTOPLASM
    suspends organelles in cell
  3. NUCLEUS
    • controls cellular activity
    • PROTEIN synthesis
  4. NUCLEOLUS
    RIBOSOME synthesis
  5. RIBOSOMES
    PROTEIN synthesis
  6. ROUGH ER
    PROTEIN synthesis
  7. SMOOTH ER
    LIPID/CHOLESTEROL synthesis
  8. GOLGI
    modifies, packages and transports PROTEIN
  9. LYSOSOMES
    • "garbage disposal"
    • removes worn parts of cell
    • removes foreign substances from cell
  10. PEROXISOMES
    detoxes drugs ect.
  11. MITOCHONDRIA
    • "POWER HOUSE"
    • site of CELLULAR RESPIRATION
  12. CILIA
    helps substances move through passageways
  13. MICROVILLI
    increases surface areas
  14. CENTRIOLES
    aid in chromosome movement during mitosis
  15. NECROSIS
    • after injury cell dies
    • unexpected
    • cells contents released into surrounding area
    • inflammation occurs
  16. INFLAMMATION
    • tissue response to injury
    • causes swelling b/c blood vessels dialate and fluid accumulates
  17. APOPTOSIS
    • orderly cell disintergration
    • cell contents are packaged before being released
    • no inflammation
    • necessary in fetal development
  18. STEM CELLS
    • divide continuously into ANY kind of cell
    • 'self renewal"
  19. PROGENITOR CELLS
    • divides into only SPECIFIC cells
    • "commited"
  20. PHAGOCYTOSIS
    • "cell-eating"
    • elimination of harmful substances
    • bad solids ingested into vesicles
  21. CANCER
    • cell divition gets out of control
    • genetic factors
    • enviromental factors
  22. BENIGN
    • localized growth
    • non-invasive
  23. MALIGNANT
    invasive cancer causing cells that extend into surrounding cells
  24. METASTASIS
    cancer cells reach circulation and SPREAD
  25. SIMPLE DIFFUSION
    • NO energy
    • high -> low
    • spreads to equalibrium
  26. FACILITATED DIFFUSION
    • NO energy
    • high -> low
    • special proteins help to diffuse substances
  27. OSMOSIS
    • NO energy
    • WATER moves from high -> low
    • WATER moves in to diffuse solute out (dilutes it)
  28. FILTRATION
    • NO energy
    • high -> low
    • uses PRESSURE to push something through CM
    • "sprinkler hose"
  29. ACTIVE TRANSPORT
    • NEEDS energy
    • low -> high
    • moves ions and amino acids through CM
  30. TONICITY/OSMOTIC PRESSURE
    • ablity of a SOLUTE to generate enough pressure to move a volume of WATER
    • *MORE SOLUTE HIGHER OSMOTIC PRESSURE*
  31. ISOTONIC
    • same pressure inside and outside of the CM
    • 0.9% NaCl
    • 5.0% glucose
  32. HYPERTONIC
    • HIGHER osmotic pressure
    • more SOLUTE in solution draws water OUT of cell
    • causes crenation
  33. HYPOTONIC
    • LOWER osmotic pressure
    • less solute in solution
    • cell pulls water IN causes swelling
  34. PINOCYTOSIS
    cell takes in LIQUID by enveloping it in a vesicle
  35. PHAGOCYTOSIS
    cell takes in SOLID by enveloping it in a vesicle
  36. ENDOCYTOSIS
    • taking in particles that are to big to pass through the CM through facilitated diffusion
    • NEEDS energy
    • low -> high
  37. EXOCYTOSIS
    • NEEDS energy
    • low -> high
    • expels a substance by packaging it and moving it OUT of the CM
  38. TRANSCYTOSIS
    selectively and rapidly transports and substance in then out of the cell
  39. CHROMATIN
    DNA wrapped around a histone that makes up a chromosome
  40. GENE
    segment of DNA that codes for a specific protein
  41. GENOME
    complete set of genes in an organism
  42. GENETIC CODE
    • translate a sequence of nucleotides to a sequence of amino acids
    • DNA -> PROTEIN
  43. NUCLEOSIDE
    sugar + base
  44. NUCLEOTIDE
    sugar + base + phosphate
  45. DNA
    • ANTIPARALLEL, double stranded polynucleotide helix
    • one side sugars are upside-down
  46. COMPLIMENTARY BASE PAIRING
    • adenine pairs with thymine 2 hydrogen bonds
    • cytosine pairs with guanine 3 hydrogen bonds
  47. DNA REPLICATION
    • happens in S phase
    • 5' -> 3' direction
    • DNA polymerase carries out replication
    • SEMI-CONSERVATIVE b/c one new pairs with one old
  48. mRNA
    • CODON
    • complimentary copy of DNA TEMPLATE that carries codes for specific PROTEINS
  49. tRNA
    • ANTICODONS
    • adaptor for translation
    • aligns amino acids so they bond with each other
  50. rRNA
    • subunit of a ribosome
    • for protein synthesis
  51. TRANSCRIPTION
    • generates mRNA from template DNA
    • occurs in NUCLEUS
    • uses ribonucleotides to make mRNA
  52. TRANSLATION
    • links AMINO ACIDS to form a polypeptide(PROTEIN) from mRNA
    • occurs in CYTOPLASM
    • uses tRNA and RIBOSOMES
  53. CODONS
    group of 3 RNA nucleotides found in mRNA that specifies and amino acid
  54. ANTICODON
    group of 3 RNA nucleotides found in tRNA that allows specific HYDROGEN BONDS with mRNA
  55. INTRON
    regions of DNA that do not code for proteins
  56. EXONS
    regions of DNA that codes for specific proteins that may be transcribed
  57. EUKARYOTIC mRNA MODIFICATION
    • 1. introns removed
    • 2. 5' guanine cap added to prevent from being eaten
    • 3. poly-A tail is added
  58. PROTEASE
    breaks down proteins
  59. PROTEASOMES
    large structures that consist of LARGE PROTEIN COMPLEX including enzymes that breakdown and recycle proteins
  60. ENZYME
    • biological catalyst
    • highly specific
    • not consumed or changed during reaction
    • effectiveness is affected by temp, pH and presence of cofactors
  61. COFACTOR
    • nonprotein component that activates enzymes
    • can be an ion or a coenzyme
  62. COENZYME
    • complex organic molecule that acts as a cofactor
    • vitamins
    • NAD+
  63. ENERGY
    • capacity to do something
    • ability to do work
    • cannot be created nor destroyed
  64. OXIDATION
    • chemical reaction that occurs when atoms lose e-
    • C6H12O6 loses to 6CO2
  65. REDUCTION
    • chemical reaction that occurs when atoms gain e-
    • 6O2 gains to 6H2O
  66. ACTIVATED CARRIERS
    molecules that carry energy
  67. ATP
    • adenosine triphosphate
    • a chain of 1 adenine + 1 ribose + 3 phosphate
    • carries energy in the form of PHOSPHATE
    • readily interchangable form of energy
    • can become ADP when it loses a phosphate
  68. NAD
    • specialized to carry high-energy e- and H+
    • passed to O2 in the ETC and their energy is used to drive the synthesis of ATP
    • important carriers of e- in CATABOLISM
  69. GLYCOLYSIS
    • happens in cytoplasm
    • produces ATP, NADH and PYRUVATE
    • break down 6carbon glucose into 2 3carbon pyruvates
    • pyruvate is coverted to acetyl CoA if O2 is present
    • if NO O2 pyruvate is converted to lactic acid to replenish supply of NAD+ so glycolysis can continue to make ATP
  70. TCA/CITRIC ACID CYCLE/KREBS CYCLE
    • happens in mitochondria
    • produces ATP, NADH, FADH2 and CO2
    • it generates energy of intermediates and CO2
    • 1. energy in acetyl CoA is trapped in NADH and FADH(e- carriers) and ATP(phosphate)
    • 2. carriers of e- that trap the energy of acetyl CoA bring their highenergy e- to the ETC
  71. ETC
    • happens in mitochondria
    • produces ATP, NAD, FAD and H2O
    • generates ATP and turns O2 into H2O (O2 gains e- to make H2O)
    • 1. chemiosmosis(oxidative phosphorilation) uses e- donated by NADH and FADH to eject H+ from the mitochondria
    • 2. H+ flow down their concentration gradient through ATP synthase to make ATP from ADP and phosphorus
    • 3. during process H+ goes through channel in ATP synthase and combines with O2 to make water

What would you like to do?

Home > Flashcards > Print Preview