Abnormal Test 2 Ch 4 vocab

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Abnormal Test 2 Ch 4 vocab
2010-10-07 19:02:15
abnormal psychology

saftner test 2 ch. 4
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  1. anxiety
    an unpleasant emotion characterized by a general sense of danger, dread, and physiological arousal
  2. trait anxiety
    an individuals tendancy to respond to a variety of situations with more or less anxiety
  3. state anxiety
    an individuals level of anxiety at a specific time
  4. gerneralized anxiety disorder
    chronic, pervasive, and debilitating nervousness
  5. panic disorder
    panic attacks that cause ongoing distress or impairment
  6. panic attack
    discrete episode of acute terror in the absence of real danger
  7. agoraphobia
    a fear of wide open spaces or crowded places
  8. specific phobia
    any phobia that is not a social phobia or agoraphobia
  9. obessive-complusive dissorder
    an anxiety disorder in which distressing and unwanted thoughts lead to compulsive rituals that significantly interfere with daily functioning
  10. obsessions
    unwanted and upsetting thoughts or impulses
  11. compulsions
    irrational rituals that are repeated in an effortto control or neutralize the anxiety brought on by obessional thoughts
  12. trauma
    an emotionally overwhelming experience in which there is a real or percieved possibility of death or serious injury to oneself or a loved one
  13. acute stress disorder
    significant posttraumatic anxiety symptoms that occur within one month of a traumatic experience
  14. Posttraumatic stress disorder
    significant posttraumatic anxiety symptoms occuring more than one month after a traumatic experience
  15. flashback
    a vivid and often overwhelming recollection of a past traumatic experience
  16. comorbidity
    the presence of two or more disorders in one person, or a general association between two or more different disorders
  17. autonomic nervous system
    the partof the central nervouse system that regulates involuntary bodily systems, such as breathing and HR; it is made up of the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems
  18. sympathetic nervous system
    the part of the ANS that activates the bodys response to emergency and arousal situations
  19. parasympathetic nervous system
    the part of the ANS that regulates the bodys calming and energy conserving functions
  20. limbic system
    a group of subcortical structures involved in the experience and expression of emotions and the formation of memories
  21. amygdala
    a brain structure which registers the emotional significance of sensory signlas and contributes to the expression of emotion
  22. hippocampus
    a brain structure involved in the formation of memories
  23. hypothalamus
    a subcortical brain structure that controls the enocrine, or hormonal, system
  24. GABA
    a neurotransmitter that inhibits nervous system activity
  25. norepinephrine
    a nerotransmitter associated with the activiatio nof the sympathetic nervous system
  26. serotonin
    a neurotransmitter associated with depression and anxiety
  27. locus coeruleus
    a part of the brain stem assocaited with activation of the sympathetic nervous system
  28. basal ganglia
    a subcortical brain structure involved in the regulation of movement
  29. barbiturates
    sedastive drugs formerly used to treat anxiety
  30. benzodiazepines
    sedative drugs that treat anxiety by increasing the activity of gammaaminobutyric acid (GABA)
  31. SSRI's
    a "second generation" class of antidepressant medications that block the reuptake of serotonin from the synapse; used in the treatment of depression and other disorders
  32. tricyclic antidepressants
    a "first generation" class of antidepressant medication which increases the availability of both serotonin and norepinephrine
  33. beta-blockers
    drugs that treat anxiety by decreasing the activity of norepinephrine
  34. azaspirones
    drugs that treat anxiety by regulation serotonin
  35. classical conditioning
    learning that takes place via automatic associations between neutral stimuli and unconditioned stimuli
  36. operant conditioning
    a form of learning in which behaviors are shaped through rewards and punishments
  37. modeling
    learning based on observing and imitating the behavior of others
  38. temporal contiguity
    two events occuring closely together in time
  39. negative reinforcement
    increasing the probability of a behavior by removing an unpleasant stimuli when the behavior occurs
  40. extinction
    the weakening of a connection between a conditioned stimulus and a conditioned response
  41. prepared conditioning
    classical conditioning based on an evolutionarily derived sensitivity to certain stimuli that were dangerous in an ancestral enviroment
  42. systematic desensitization
    intervention involving gradually increasing exposure to a conditioned stimulus while practicing relaxation techniques
  43. relaxation training
    technique for teaching people to calm themselves by regulating their breathing and attending to bodily sensations
  44. fear hierarchy
    in systematic desensitization a list of feared situations ranging from least to most terrifying
  45. in vivo desensitization
    behavioral desensitization training in which the client is actually confronted with the feared stimulus
  46. covert desensitization
    behavioral desensitization intervention for phobias in which the client practices relaxation techniques while imagining being confronted with the feared stimulus
  47. flooding
    intense exposure to a feared stimulus
  48. interoceptive exposure
    deliverate induction of the physiological sensations typically associated with a panic attack
  49. exposure and response prevention
    a behavioral intervention in which clients are incouraged to confront a frightening thought or situation and then prevented from engaging in anxiety-reducing behaviors
  50. covert response prevention
    exposure and response prevention in obsessive-compulsive disorder for clients whose compulsions are mental processes
  51. prolonged imaginal exposure
    a behavioral intervention in which clients suffering from PTSD are encouraged to describe the traumatizing experiences in detail
  52. cognitive schemas
    mental models of the world that are used to organize information
  53. cognitive distortions
    irrational beliefs and thinking processes
  54. dichotomous reasoning
    a cognitive distortion involving thinking in terms of extremes and absolutes
  55. catastrophizing
    a cognitive distortion involving the tendancy to view minor problems as major catastrophies
  56. labeling
    a cognitive distrotion in which people or situations are characterized on the basis of global, not specific, features
  57. personalization
    a cognitive distrotion in which one wrongly assumes that he or she is the cause of a particular event
  58. repression
    a defense mechanism consisting of the forgetting of painful or unacceptable mental content
  59. displacement
    a defense mechanism in which feelings about someone or something are unconsciously shifted to someone or something else
  60. oedipus comples
    a phase during normal development when children desire an exclusive loving relationshiop with the parent of the opposite sex
  61. projection
    a defense mechanism in which an individual attributes his or her own unacceptable emotions to someone or something else
  62. isolation of affect
    a defense mechanism in which thoughts occur without associated feelings
  63. undoind
    a defense mechanism in whihc one action or thought is used to "cancle out" an other action or thought
  64. maladaptive emotional scheme
    a humanistic term for patterns of thought and feeling that emerge around salient emotional experiences and are activated in similar situations during adulthood
  65. HPA axis
    a brain system involving the hypothalamus, pituitary gland, and adrenal cortex that regulates the release of stress hormones into the bloodstream