is an even or behavior that can assume at least two values.
Exp. temperature, height, weight, noise level,
Usually characteristic of the participants
Aspects of the experimental situation
Can cause the variability of scores with in groups
When the nuisance variable increases.....
spread of scores
Makes more high and more low scores
Causes the bell curve to flatten
Does not move the mean of the scores
Example of Nuisance Variable
Reading with Young and Old people
Cause more A's and more F's
Nuisance Variable makes it difficult to see.....
the effects of the IV
It makes it hard to see what influence the IV had on the DV.
Ensures that each participant has an equal chance of being assigned to any group in an experiment.
When the participants in an experiment are subjected to conditions that alter or change their normal biological state.
Exp. Rats and alcohol
When the effects of amount or type of previous training or learning are the central focus of the research.
Exp. when the participants were tested on memory
Stimulus or Environmental Variables
When researchers are manipulating some aspect of the environment.
Exp. the study with the heels and bare foot. The IV's were heels or barefoot
ate those factors that can gave an unintended influence on the results of our experiment.
They influence the difference between groups
Types of Independent Variables
When the results of the study can either be the cause of the IV or the EV.
the results of the experiment.
the DV will measure the amount of correct answers received.
Rate or Frequency
The rate of responding determines how rapidly responses are made during a specified time period
The frequency does not focus on how rapid the response is, it focuses on the over all amount of responses in a period of time.
Degree or Amount
record the DV in terms of degree.
Exp. the degree or amount of happiness people were with their satisfaction of life
Latency and Duration
In many situations, such as studies of learning and memory, how quickly participants make a response (latency) or how long the response lasts (duration) are of particular interest.
when the DV measures what the experimental hypothesis says it should measure.
Producing consistent measurements.
Exp. The scores on an intelligence test are used as the DV,
are either characteristics of the participants or unintended influences of the experimental situation that make the effects of the more difficult to see or determine.
can have and unintended influence on the results of an experiment by changing the difference between the groups. when an extraneous variable is present, the experiment is confounded.
changes as a function of the changes in the IV.
A good DV is.....
Valid and Reliable
A DV can be recorded in terms of
Rate or Frequency
Degree or Amount
Latency or Duration
are variables that increase the variability of scores within all groups. The presence of the nuisance variables make the results of an experiment less clear.
An event or behavior that can assume at leas two values is a....?
Change in normal biological state
Manipulation of environment
Can damage the experiment and its results
Changes as a function of changes in IV
Amount of previous learning
Your research involves determining the effects of persuasion on the strength of attitudes.
A good DV has two primary qualities and they are
valid and reliable
What are the five basic control techniques
The goals of the Five Basic Control Techniques
(a) Produce groups that are equivalent prior to the introduction of the IV, thereby eliminating extraneous variables.
(b) reduce the effects of nuisance variables as much as possible.
Choosing to remove or eliminate the unwanted variable.
Exp. the experiment with the photo's of individuals of the top of their fore head to the base of their chin, eliminating their body type and clothing.
has become a standard control technique for many researchers.
Exp. the experiment taking place in the same room, same temperature, same lighting and same day.
A control procedure that achieves group equality by distributing extraneous variables equally to all groups.
A procedure for controlling order effects
Exp. The cola challenge the order in which the cola was given.
presents different treatment sequences to the same participant.
Exp. Cola Challenge one participant taste the cola in this sequence ABBA
presentation of different treatment sequences to different participants.
Exp. Cola Challenge the group is randomly assigned into groups, group 1 taste AB group 2 taste BA.
All possible treatment sequences are presented.
Only a portion of all possible sequences are presented.
Sequence or Order Effects
Complete removal of the extraneous Variable
Extraneous variable is reduced to a single value
Most widely used control procedure
Used to control for order effects
Extraneous variable is distributed equally to all group
Balancing is a logical extension of
What occurs when the response to one treatment depends on which treatment preceded it?
When considering a group of participants what should you think of?
Precedent, Availability, Nature of the problem.
An established pattern
Exp. College students and white rats
Is the likelihood that the statistical test will be significant. Generally speaking, the greater the number of participant the higher the power of the statistical test.
Automated equipment can be used for?
Recording can be used for?
Group homogeneity is best associated with?
Testing a smaller number of participants
Group heterogeneity is best associated with?
Testing more participants
One of the best guidelines for the number of participants to be used in a successful research project is?
You have an ethical problem causing traumatic events to occur to people, You have a problem with?
When the experimenter influences the outcome of an experiment
Exp. The "gifted" children and the "smart" rats
keeps the experimenter in the dark regarding which participants receive which treatments.
When participants us cues to determine what the experimenter's hypothesis is and how they are supposed to act.
Good Participant Effect
When the participant acts in the way they think the experimenter wants them to act
participants that always agree
participants that never agree
The result when an experimental context or testing situation influences the participants' responses.
The experimenter apparel and the setting of the testing sight
Experimenter and the participants are unaware of which treatment is being administered to which participants.
Psychological Experimenter Effects
Hostility and Anxiety
Physiological Experimenter Effects
Control for demand characteristics and experimenter expectancies.
Control for experimenter expantancies
An experiment in which the researcher doesn't know which treatment the participant are receiving
is a blind experiment
Demand characteristics refer to?
cues that tell the participant how to act
A branch of psychology whose goal is to determine the universality of research results.
Lasting values, attitudes, and behaviors that are shared by a group and transmitted to subsequent generations.
A finding that is found across cultures.
Are findings that are linked to a specific culture.
when experimenters view other cultures of their own.
Cultural response set
the tendency for a specific culture to respond in a certain way
The goal of cross-cultural psychology is best described as?
determining whether psychological findings are universal
A finding linked to a specific culture best describes?
The tendency of a culture to behave in a certain way best describes?
a culture response set
Is a question of whether your independent actually created any change that you can observe in your dependent variable.
refers to events that occur between the DV measurements in a repeated-measures designs.
Exp. Patriotic experiment in progress then 9/11 happens
Exp. The person grows up, the person gets bored, the person gets sleepy.
Taking a test multiple times will lead to different outcomes
When a participant changes their answer in the way they want.
Eep. Experiment on attitudes: a paricipant may give answers in favor to women if thier experimenter is a woman.
using measures that do not alter the participant's response by virtue of measuring it.
When equipment in the experiment malfunction or break.
When an experimenter has extreme scores, it will be hard to maintain those extreme scores.
Exp. A 7'0 Basketball player has a child, their child will more then likely be shorter then 7'0 and If a 6'4 jockey has a child, their child will more then likely be short but they will be taller then 6'4.
Choosing in a way that participants are not equal before the experiment.
a participant dying, leaving the experiment, being removed from the experiment
Interations with Selections
having systematic differences between or among selected treatment groups based on maturation, histoy or instumentation.
Diffusion or Imitation of Treatment
Exp. Child Abduction Experiment: The children coming back into the room and telling their friend what happened.