Cognitive Neuroscience

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Cognitive Neuroscience
2010-10-10 23:41:29
Cognitive Neuroscience

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  1. Catagory Specificity
    The notion that the brain represents different categories in different ways (and / or different regions)
  2. Reference Frames
    A representational system for coding space (ie: near vs. far space; imaginary vs external space)
  3. Ventriloquist Effect
    A tendency to mis localiz heard sounds onto a seen source of potential sounds
  4. Neglect
    A failure to attend to stimuli on the opposite side of space to the lesion
  5. Object Orientation Agnosia
    An inability to extract the orientation of an object despite adequate object recognition
  6. Negative Priming
    If an ignored object suddenly becomes the attended object, then participants are slower @ processing it
  7. Late Selection
    A theory of attention in which all incoming info is processed up to the level of meaning (semantics) before being selected for futher processing
  8. Object Constancy
    An understanding that objects remain the same, irrespective of differences in viewing condition
  9. Early Selection
    A theory of attention in which info is selected according to perceptual attributes
  10. Integrative Agnosia
    A failure to integrate parts into wholes in visual perception
  11. Figure -Ground Segregation
    The process of segmenting a visual display into objects vs. background surfaces
  12. Illusory Conjunctions
    A situation in which visual features of 2 different objects are incorrectly perceived as being associated with 1 single object
  13. Endogenous Orienting
    Attention is guided by the goals of the perceiver
  14. Associative Agnosia
    Failure to understand the meaning of objects due to a deficit @ the level of semantic memory
  15. Apperceptive Agnosia
    A failure to understand the meaning of objects due to a deficit @ the level of object perception
  16. Exogenous Orienting
    Attention that is extremely guided by the stimulus
  17. Inhibition of Return
    A slowing of reaction time associated with going back to a previously attended location
  18. Pseudoneglect
    In a non - lesioned brain there is overattention to the left side of space
  19. Structural Descriptions
    Memory representation of the 3D structure of objects
  20. Biological Motion
    The ability to detect whether a stimulus is animate or not from movement cues alone
  21. Change Blindness
    Participants fail to notice the appearance / disappearance of objects between 2 alternating images
  22. Inattentional Blindness
    A failure to consciously see something because attention is directed away from it
  23. Cross - Modal Perception
    Integrating info across sensory modalities
  24. Allocentric Space
    A map of space coding the locations of objects and places relative to each other
  25. Akinetopsia
    Failure to perceive visual motion
  26. Achromatopsia
    Failure to perceive color (the world appears in grayscale) not to be confused with color blindness
  27. Retinocentric Space
    A map of space coded relative to the position of eye gaze
  28. Place Cells
    Neurons that respond when an animal is in a particular location in allocentric space (normally found in the hippocampus)
  29. Extinction
    When presented with 2 stimuli at the same time (one in each hemisphere), then the stimulus on the opposite side of the lesion is not consciously perceived
  30. Cancellation Task
    A variant of the visual search paradigm in which the patient must search for targets in an array, normally striking them through as they are found
  31. Line Bisection
    A task involving judging the central point of a line
  32. Balint's Syndrome
    A severe difficulty in spatial processing normally following bilateral lesions of parietal lobe; symptoms include: simultanagnosia, optic ataxia, and optic apraxia
  33. Simultanagnosia
    The inability to perceive more than one object at a time
  34. Pop-out
    The ability to detect an object amongst distractor objects in situations in which the # of distractors presented is unimportant
  35. Visual Search
    A task of detecting the presence / absense of a specified target object in an array of other distracting objects
  36. Attention
    The process by which certain info is selected for further processing and other info is discarded
  37. Egocentric Space
    A map of space coded relative to the postion of the body
  38. Prosopagnosia
    Impairments of face processing that do not reflect difficulties in early visual analysis (also used to refer to an inability to recognize previously familiar faces)
  39. Person Identity Nodes (PINs)
    An abstract description of people that links together perceptual knowledge (faces) with semantic knowledge
  40. Face Recognition Units (FRUs)
    Stored knowledge of the 3D structure of familiar faces
  41. Color Constancy
    The color of a surface is perceived as constant even when illuminated in different lighting conditions
  42. V5 (MT)
    Region of extrastriate cortex associated with motion perception
  43. V4
    Region of extrastriate cortex associated with color perception
  44. Blind Sight
    Symptom in which the patient reports not being able to see stimuli in a particular region but can nevertheless perform visual discriminations (long, short) accurately
  45. Scotoma
    Small region of cortical blindness
  46. Quadrantanopia
    Cortical blindness restricted to a 1/4 of the visual field
  47. Hemianopia
    Cortical blindness restricted to 1/2 of the visual field (associated with damage to the primary visual cortex in one hemisphere)
  48. Hypercomplex Cells
    In vision, cells that respond to particular orientations and particular lengths
  49. Complex Cells
    In vision, cells that respond to light in a particular orientation but do not respond to single points of light
  50. Simple Cells
    In vision, cells that respond to light in a particular orientation
  51. Receptive Field
    The region of space that elicits a response from a given neuron
  52. Primary Visual Cortex (V1)
    1st stage of visual processing in the cortex, the region retains the spatial relationships found on the retina and combines simple visual features into more complex ones
  53. Blind Spot
    The point at which the optic nerve leaves the eye. No rods / cones present there
  54. Cone Cells
    Type of photoreceptor specialized for high levels of light intensity, such as those found during the day, and specialized for the detection of different wavelengths
  55. Rod Cells
    Type of photoreceptor specialized for low levels of light intensity, such as those found at night
  56. Retina
    The internal surface of the eyes containing photoreceptors that convert light to neural signals
  57. Perception
    The elaboration and interpretation of a sensory stimulus based on, for example, knowledge of how objects are structured
  58. Sensation
    The effects of a stimulus on the sensory organs
  59. Wilder Penfield
    Used electrical impulses and saw patients to be stimulated. Enabled mapping for brain regions
  60. Cognition
    A variety of higher mental processes such as thinking, perceiving, imagining, speaking, acting, and planning
  61. Cognitive Neuroscience
    Aims to explain cognitive processes in terms of brain - based mechanisms
  62. Mind - Body Problem
    The problem of how a physical substance (the brain) can give rise to our feelings, thoughts and emotions (our mind)
  63. Dualism
    The belief that mind and brain are made up of different kinds of substance

    -Rene Descartes: mind-non-physical and immortal // body-physical and mortal interacted in pineal gland
  64. Dual - Aspect Theory
    The belief that mind and brain are two levels of description of the same thing

  65. Reductionism
    The belief that mind based concepts will eventually be replaced by neuroscientific concepts

    -Churchland: psych will eventually be reduced to biology
  66. Phrenology
    The failed idea that individual differences in cognition can be mapped on to differences in skull shape

    • 1. different regions perform different functions (+)
    • 2. size of regions => skull size => differences in personality and cognition (-)

    -Gail & Spurzheim
  67. Functional Specialization
    Different regions of the brain are specialized for different functions

    -Broca -language could be localized

    -Wenicke - subdivided language: speech recognition, speech production...
  68. Cognitive Neuropsychology
    The study of brain - damaged patients to inform theories of normal cognition

    aka: cognitive neuroscience
  69. Information Processing
    An approach in which behavior is described in terms of a sequence of cognitive stages
  70. Interactivity
    Later stages of processing can begin before earlier stages are complete
  71. Top-down Processing
    The influence of later stages on the processing of earlier ones (memory influences on perception)

    -part of info processing
  72. Parallel Processing
    Different information is processed at the same time
  73. Neural Network Models
    Computational models in which information processing occurs using many interconnected nodes
  74. Nodes
    The basic units of neural network models that are activated in response to activity in other parts of the network
  75. Temporal Resolution
    The accuracy with which one can measure when an event (physiological change) occurs

    -EEG / MEG / TMS / single - cell recording -millisec resolution

    -PET: min resolution

    - fMRI: seconds resolution - hemodynamic responses
  76. Spatial Resolution
    The accuracy with which one can measure where an event (physiological change) is occuring

    • -lesions and functional imaging: millimeter level
    • - single cell recording: resolution at neuron level
  77. Modularity
    Notion that certain cognitive processes (or regions of the brain) are restricted in the type of info they process

    • -Fodor
    • -central system vs. modules