Medical Terminology Ch. 2

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Gelly
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40640
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Medical Terminology Ch. 2
Updated:
2010-10-16 03:04:04
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Medical Terminology- Body Structures and Directional Terminology
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  1. What is metabolism?
    The act of converting energy by continually building up substances by ANABOLISM and breakdown substances by CATABOLISM

    metabolism= anabolism + catabolism
  2. metabolism:
    meta-
    bol-
    -ism
    • change, beyond
    • throwing
    • state of
  3. cell part:
    cytoplasm
    holds the organelles of the cell
  4. cyt/o
    cell
  5. -plasm
    formation
  6. cell part:
    lysosome
    organelle that serves as a digestive function for the cell
  7. lys/o
    dissolving
  8. -some
    body
  9. cell part:
    ribosome
    site of protein formation; contains RNA
  10. what are the 4 types of tissue?
    epithelial, connective, muscular, nervous
  11. Fxn of epithelial?
    internal or external covering for the organs (ie lining of the digestive tract)
  12. Fxn of connective tissue?
    connective purposes (i.e bone, blood and fat)
  13. Fxn muscular tissue?
    able to contract and relax (ie heart muscle, skeletal muscle, and visceral muscle
  14. Fxn of the nervous tissue?
    includes cells that provide transmission of info to regulate a variety of fxn's (ie neurons)
  15. organs are also referred as?
    Viscera
  16. myocardium?
    muscle lining the heart
  17. endocardium?
    myocardium lined with epithelial tissue called endocardium
  18. apic/o
    (apex)
    the point of extremity of conical stucture
  19. corpor/o
    som/o
    somat/o
    the largest or most important part of an organ
  20. fornic/o
    (fornix)
    any vaultlike or arched structure
  21. fund/o
    (fundus)
    the base or deepest part of a hollow organ that is farthest from the mouth of the organ
  22. hil/o
    (hilo)
    Recess, exit, or entrance of a duct into a gland, or of a nerve and vessels into an organ
  23. lumin/o
    (lumen)
    the space within an artery, vein, intestine or tube
  24. sin/o
    sinus/o
    (sinus)
    a cavity or channel in bone
  25. vestibul/o
    (vestibule)
    a small space or cavity at the beginning of a canal
  26. fxn
    musculoskeletal
    support, movement, protection
  27. fxn
    integumentary
    cover/protection
  28. fxn
    gastriointestinal
    nutriton
  29. fxn
    urinary
    elimination of nitrogenous waste
  30. fxn
    reproductive blood/lymphatic/immune
    reproduction, transportation of nutrients/waste, protection
  31. fxn
    cardiovascular
    transportation of blood
  32. fxn
    respiratory
    delivers oxygen to cells and removes CO2
  33. fxn
    nervous/behavioral
    receive/process info
  34. fxn
    special senses
    information gathering
  35. fxn
    endocrine
    effects changes through chemical messengers
  36. hem/o, hemat/o
    • blood
    • (hematic)
  37. cyt/o, cellul/o
    • cell
    • (cellular)
  38. lys/o
    • breakdown, dissolve
    • (lytic)
  39. mycardi/o
    • heart muscle
    • (myocardial)
  40. chym/o
    • juice
    • (chymous)
  41. thel/e
    • nipple
    • (thelial)
  42. kary/o, nucle/o
    • nucleus
    • (nuclear)
  43. organ/o vicer/o
    • organ, visera
    • (viscera)
  44. bol/o
    to throw, throwing
  45. hist/o
    tissue
  46. prefix
    ana-
    up, apart, away
  47. prefix
    cata-
    down
  48. prefix
    en-
    in
  49. prefix
    endo-
    within
  50. prefix
    epi-
    above,upon
  51. prefix
    meta-
    beyond,change
  52. prefix
    para-
    near, besides, abnormal
  53. suffix
    -al, -ous
    pertaining to
  54. suffix
    -ia, -ism
    condition, state of
  55. suffix
    -on
    structure
  56. suffix
    -plasm
    formation
  57. suffix
    -some
    body
  58. suffix
    -stasis
    controlling, stopping
  59. suffix
    -um
    structure, thing, membrane
  60. suffix
    -us
    structure
  61. necr/o
    death, dead
  62. -opsy
    process of viewing
  63. -al
    pertaining to
  64. necropsy
    processing of viewing dead tissue
  65. bucc/o

    bucal
    pertaining to the cheek
  66. cephal/o

    cephalic
    pertaining to the head
  67. cervic/o

    cervical
    pertaining to the neck
  68. crani/o

    cranial
    pertaining to the skull
  69. ment/o

    mental
    pertaining to the chin
  70. ocul/o

    ocular
    pertaining to the eye
  71. ot/o

    otic
    pertaining to the ear
  72. axill/o

    axillary
    pertaining to the armpit
  73. cox/o

    coxal
    pertaining to the hip
  74. inguin/o

    inguinal
    pertaining to the groin
  75. pelv/o, pelv/i

    pelvis
    pertaining to the pelvis
  76. pub/o

    pubis
    pertaining to the pubis
  77. stern/o

    sternal
    pertaining to the breastbone
  78. thorac/o

    thoracic
    pertaining to the chest
  79. antecubital
    pertaining to the elbow
  80. brachi/o

    brachial
    arm
  81. carp/o

    carpal
    pertaining to the wrist
  82. crur/o

    curural
    pertaining to the leg
  83. digit/o

    digital
    pertaining to the finger/toe.
  84. phalanges
    pertaining to the the bones in the fingers/toes
  85. manu/u

    manual
    pertaining to the hand
  86. palm/o

    palmar
    pertaining to the palm (aka volar)
  87. ped/o
    pertaining to the foot
  88. plant/o
    pertaining to the sole of the foot
  89. tars/o

    tarsal
    pertaining to the ankle
  90. acromi/o

    acromial
    pertaining to the acromion (highest point of shoulder)
  91. lumb/o

    lumbar
    pertaining to the lower back
  92. olecran/o
    pertaining to the elbow
  93. poplit/o

    popiteal
    pertaining to the back of the knee
  94. sacr/o

    sacrum
    pertaining to the sacrum
  95. sur/o

    sural
    pertaining to the calf
  96. later/o

    lateral
    pertaining to the side
  97. ipsi

    ipsilateral
    pertaining to the side
  98. contra

    contralateral
    pertaining to the opposite side
  99. unilateral
    pertaining to one side
  100. bilateral
    pertaining to two sides
  101. prox/o

    proximal
    pertaining to far from the origin
  102. dextr/o

    dextrad
    toward the right
  103. sinistr/o

    sinistrad
    toward the left
  104. af-
    afferent
    pertaining to carrying toward a structure
  105. ef-

    efferent
    pertaining to carrying away from a structure
  106. supine
    lying on one's back
  107. prone
    lying on one's belly
  108. abdominopelvic quadrants (ventral)
    R hpochondriac region, epigastric region, L hypochondriac region, R lumbar region, umbillical region, L lumbar region, R illican region, hypogastric region, L iliac region
  109. abdominopelvic quadrants (dorsal)
    • R upper quadrant, L upper quadrant,
    • R lower quadrant, L lower quadrant
  110. Munro's point
    halfway between the naval and hip bone (standard site of entrance for surgeons performing laparoscopic surgery)
  111. sagittal
    vertical separations
  112. midsaggital
    separate body into R and L halves
  113. cross-sectional or transverse cut
    divides into upper and lower sections
  114. chondr/o
    cartilage
  115. inguin/o
    groin
  116. ile/o
    ilium
  117. suffix

    -ant, -iac, -ic
    pertaining to
  118. suffix

    -verse
    to turn

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