Bio H

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Bio H
2010-01-12 21:40:09

Chp 11 & 13
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  1. Gene Expression
    The activation or "turing on" of a gene that results in transcription and the production or mRNA
  2. Genome
    The complete genetic material contained in an individual
  3. Structural Genes
    Genes that code for polypeptide
  4. Promoter
    DNA segment that is recognized by the enzymer RNA polymerase
  5. Operator
    A DNA segment that serves as a kind of "switch" by controlling the acess of RNA polymerase the promoter
  6. Operon
    A series of genes that code for specific products and the regulatory elements that control these genes
  7. Lac Operon
    Clustered arrangement of genes that form an operon
  8. Repressor Protein
    A protein that inhibits genes from being expressed
  9. Regulator Genes
    Code repressor proteins and are locatedsome distance from the operators they affect
  10. Inducer
    A molecule that initiates gene expression
  11. Euchromatin
    The site of active transcription of DNA into RNA
  12. Introns
    Sections of a structural gene that are transcribed but not translated
  13. Exons
    The sections of a structural gene, that when expressed, are transcribed and translated
  14. Pre-mRNA
    A form of messenger RNA that cintains both introns and exons
  15. Tramscription Factors
    Regulator proteins in eukaryotes
  16. Enhancers
    Sequences of DNA that may bind to transcription factors
  17. Cell Differentiation
    Development of cells that have specialized functions
  18. Homeotic Genes
    Regulatory genes that determine where certain anatomical structures will develop in an organism during morphogenesis
  19. Homeobox
    Specific DNA sequence within a homeotic gene
  20. Proto-oncogenes
    Division of cells is regulated by many genes
  21. Oncogene
    A gene that can cause uncontrolled cell proliferation
  22. Tumor
    An abnormal proliferation of cells that results from uncontrolled, abnormal cell division
  23. Cancer
    Uncontrolled frowth of cells that can invade other parts of the body
  24. Tumor-suppressor Genes
    Code for proteins that prevent cell division from occuring too often
  25. Metastasis
    The spread of cancer cells beyond their original site
  26. Carcinogen
    Any substance that can induce or promote cancer
  27. Carcinomas
    Grow in the skin and the tissues that line the organs of the body
  28. Sarcomas
    Grow in bone and muscle tissue
  29. Lymphomas
    Solid tumors that grow in the tissues of the lymphatic system
  30. Leukemia
    Uncontrolled production of white blood cells
  31. Length Polymorphisms
    Variations in the length of the SNE molecule between known genes
  32. Variable Number Tandem Repeats (VNTR)
    Sequences that can repeat a few or many times in tandem
  33. Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)
    A technique that quickly produces many copies of a DNA fragment
  34. Primers
    Artificially made pieces of single-stranded DNA that are 20-30 nucleotides long that must be present for SNA polymerase to initiate replication
  35. Restriction Enzymes
    Recognize specific short DNA sequences, and cut the DNA in or near the sequences
  36. Gel Electophoresis
    A technique that can be used to study DNA fragments
  37. DNA Fingerprint
    Resulting pattern of bands
  38. Genetic Engineering
    The process of altering the genetic material of cells or organisms to allow them to make new substances
  39. Recombinant DNA
    Results when DNA from two different organisms is joined
  40. Clone
    An exact copy of a DNA segment, a whole cell, or a complete organism
  41. Vectors
    Item that researchers can clone DNA fragments in
  42. Plasmids
    Small Ring of DNA found naturally in some bacterial cells in addition to the main bacterial chromosome
  43. Probe
    A strand of RNA or sinlge-stranded DNA that is labeled with a radioactive element or fluorescent dye and that can base-pair to specific DNA
  44. Human Genome Project
    A research effort undertaken to sequence all of our DNA and locate within it all of the functionally important sequences, such as genes
  45. Proteome
    An organism's complete set of proteins
  46. Aingle Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNP)
    Unique spots where individuals differ by a single nuclotide
  47. Bioinformatics
    Combines biological science, computer science, and information technology to enable the discovery of new biological insights and unifying principles
  48. Proteomics
    The study of all organism's proteins, including their iidentities, structures, interactions, and abundances
  49. Two-dimensional Gel Electrophoresis
    A method that seperates the proteins in a sample into individual spots
  50. Gene Therapy
    A method where genetic disorder is treated by introducing a gene into a patient's cells
  51. Cloning by Nuclear Transfer
    Procedure that introduces a nucleus from a body cell into an egg cell to generate an organism identical to the nucleus donor
  52. Telomeres
    Repeated DNA sequences at the ends of chromosomes that shorten with each round of cell division
  53. DNA Vaccine
    A vaccine made from the DNA of a pathogen but does not have disease-causing capability
  54. Bioethics
    The study of ethical issues related to DNA technology