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Periodic Table Trends
Review of periodic trends including atomic radius, electronegativity, ionization energy, metallic vs nonmetallic properties
What is the same for all members of a period?
All members of a period have the same number of electron shells.
What is the same for all members of a group (family)?
all members of a group (family) have the same # of valence e-
Define atomic radius.
Atomic radius is one half the distance between the nuclei of atoms of an element.
Use Ref S, what is the distance between 2 oxygen nuclei?
Distance is 130 pm (2x radius)
What is the trend for atomic radius as the atomic # increases with in a group?
The trend for atomic radius in a group is that the radius increases.
Why is there an increase in atomic radius with in a group?
Atomic radius increases as each successive group member has one more e- shell.
Nuclear charge is synonomous with what term?
Nuclear charge is synonomous with atomic # or # of protons.
Give the location and charge of each subatomic particle: proton, neutron, electron
: in nucleus, + charge
: in nucleus, 0 charge
: outside nucleus (cloud), - charge
As atomic # increases with in a period, what is the trend in atomic radii?
Across a period, the atomic radius decreases.
Why is there a decrease in atomic radius across a period (from left to right)?
There a decrease in atomic radius across a period due to an increase in nuclear charge which pulls the e- cloud in tighter.
An ion is an atom that has a charge due to a loss or gain of electrons.
What is produced if the number of protons in an atom is changed?
If the number of protons in an atom is changed, it is a different element.
What is the electron configuration for a magnesium ion?
2 - 8
What is the electron configuration of an oxygen ion?
2 - 8
Which has a larger radius, chlorine atom or chloride ion?
Chloride ion has the larger radius.
Do metals tend to gain or loose electrons?
Metals tend to loose electrons.
Electronegativity is the attraction an atom has for electrons in a chemical bond.
Compare the electronegativity of metal vs a nonmetal.
Nonmetals have greater electronegativity than metals.
What is the trend for electronegativity with in a group?
From top to bottom in a group, the electronegativity decreases.
Where are more metallic elements: the top of bottom of a group?
More metallic elements are found at the bottom of a group.
What is the trend for electronegativity across a period?
The electronegativity across a period increases with an increase in atomic number.
Which element of group 17 is more reactive?
Flourine (top) is most reactive nonmetal in group 17.
What is stable octet?
Stable octet is when the valence shell has 8 electrons.
Define ionization energy?
Ionization energy is the energy needed to remove the outermost electon from an atom.
Which tend to have greater ionization energies, metals or nonmetals?
Nonmetals tend to have greater ionization energies.