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What are the different Process Selections?
- Job Shop
What are the different Layouts?
- Process - JB, Batch, Repetitive, Continuous
- Hybrid/Combination - Cellular, Flexible Manufacturing
Product Layout AKA Serial Layout (Sequential) - Definition and which process or processes does it include? Give an example
- Layout that uses standardized processingn operations to achieve smooth, rapid, high volume flow
- Includes: Repetitive or Continuous Processing
- Ex: Cafeteria - Workflow in order. Station 1->2->3
Advantages of Product Layout
- Routine accounting, purchasing & Inventory
- Low unit & material handling cost (cuz high volume)
- High rate of output & utilization of labor & equipment
- Labor Specialization
Disadvantages of Product Layout
- Repetitive job--> Low morale & opp for advancement, repetitive stress injuries
- Poorly skilled workers --> Low maintenance of equipment & quality of output
- Fairly inflexible to changes in volume & product/process design
- Highly susceptible to shutdowns
- Needs preventive maintenance, quick repairs, spare-parts inventories
- No individual incentive plans
U-Shaped Production Line
- Half the length of a straight production line
- Permits communication among workers
- Minimize material handling - Materials enter the plant at the same point that finished products leave
Process Layout AKA Functional Layout
- Layout that can handle varied processing requirements
- Used for Intermittent Processing
- Includes: Job Shop & Batch Processing
- Ex: Hometown Buffet, Emergency floor in a hospital
Advantages of Process Layout
- Can handle a variety of processing requirements.Ex: Hospitals, colleges, banks, auto-repair shops
- Equipment not vulnerable to failures and less costly
- Individual incentive plans possible
Disadvantages of Process Layouts
- Accounting, purchasing & Inventory control more involved
- High In-process inventory
- Higher Unit Cost - Inefficient
- Challenging routing and scheduling
- Low equipment utilization (less than 50%)
- Low supervision - cuz of complexities
- Slow material handling
- Special attention for each product or customer
Fixed Position Layout
- Layout where projects remain stationary and workers, materials and equipment are moved as needed
- Ex: Caterpillar (Large industrial Machines/Projects), Airplanes, Dams, Navy Ships, Power Plants, Buildings.
What nature of the product dictates a fixed position layout
Fixed position layout info
**** Slide info***
Combination / Hybrid Layout
- Mixture of Process & Production Layout
- Ex: Super Market - Market (Process Layout), Stockroom & cash registers conveyor belts (Product Layout)
- Ex: Hospital - Hospital (Process Layout), doctors, meds, nurses, special equip work around a stationed patient (Fixed Position Layout)
*** look up book and slide for info*** and look at the example layout of cellular layout
The grouping into part families of items with similar design (all circular, square, etc.) or manufacturing characteristics
You choose a process by considering these 3 factors.
- Variety in products
- Volume in Demand
Variety in products
- How much variety in products will the system need to handle?
- How much a product changes from one customer to the next
Ex: Gas (Standardized) , Glasses (Custom Made)
Volume in Demand
- What is the expected volume of output.
- Ex: Gas (made fast), Glasses (Not made in advance)
Flexibility in equipment: how is it determined?
Determined by Variety in product & Volume in demand
- Ex: Eye Glasses (AED), Emergency Room, Appliance Repair
- A manufacturing facility that generates a variety of products
- High Variety & Flexibility
- Low Volume - small jobs
- Intermittent Processing - Producing several different products on the same production line
- General purpose equipment
- Highly skilled workers
- Ex: Bakery, Classroom Lecture
- Moderate Variety, Volume, Flexibility
- Intermittent processing & Skilled workers not as high as Job Shop.
Repetitive AKA Assembly Line
- Ex: Honda America, Automatic Carwash
- High Volume - of standardized goods/services
- Low Flexiblity & Variety
- Low Skilled workers
- Repetitive processing
- Ex: Salt, Flour, Petroleum, Steel Production, Water Purification
- High Volume - Highly standarized products (non-discrete items)
- No Variety or Flexibility (Specialized equipment)
- Range - Worker skill depends on system complexity Ex: Highly specialized equip = low skill
What are the Process Characteristics?
***Put in chart from slide***
Product/Service life cycle: Different types of processes will be needed for different stages, what are they?
- Introduction: Job Shop, Low Volume
- Growth: Batch or Repetitive, may need to switch from Job Shop depending on the product type
- Maturity: Continuous, Could be required
Advantages / Disadvantages of the different Process Layouts.
*** Add in chart from slide***
Product - Processes Matrix
*** Add in chart from slide***
Definition of Automation
Machinery that has sensing and control devices that enables it to operate
Computer Aided *****(Automated) Design
Computer Aided ***(Automated) Manufacturing
- Flexible Manufacturing Systems
- Grouping machines that include supervisory computer control, automatic material handling, & robots to produce a variety of similiar products.
- Ex: Video for FORD. switch car models in days versus months without changing the entire process layout cuz machines can adjust to the similiar car design for different Ford models.
Computer Intergrated Manufacturing
Functional vs. Cellular Layouts
**** Chart ****
What are the different Service Layouts?
- Warehouse & Storage
- Office- computers = layout dif than before cuz ppl don't have to physically move to transfer paperwork to dif dept.
- (They must be aesthetically pleasing as well as functional)
What is one way to improve productivity and reduce costs in services?
Remove customer from the process as much as possible.
- Ex: Automation in services. ATM, Electronic rsvp (travel)
- --> less customization & risk of customer dissatisfaction
- --> reduce costs & increase productivity
What is line balancing?
Process of assigning tasks to workstations in such a way that the workstations have approx equal time requirements.
Unbalanced lines can create...
create morale problems @ the slower stations for workers who must work continuously.
is the maximum time allowed at each workstation to complete its set of tasks on a unit.
Max output equation
- output = OT / CT
- OT - Operating Time
- CT - Cycle Time
Cycle Time equation
CT = OT / Output
Determine the Minimum Number
of Workstations Required
Nmin = Sum of task time / CT
Idle Time AKA Balance Delay
% of idle time = total idle time per cycle / Nactual x CT
Efficiency of the line equation
= 100% - Idle time
Alls tasks you encounter working backwards
what is positional weight
sum of the task times for itself and all its following tasks.
Line Balancing Rules
- Some Heuristic (intuitive) Rules:
- Assign tasks in order of most following tasks.
- Count the number of tasks that follow
- Assign tasks in order of greatest positional weight.
- Positional weight is the sum of each task’s time and the times of all following tasks.