MGMT 339 Ch. 6

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MGMT 339 Ch. 6
2010-10-17 20:36:40
Process Selection Facility Layout

Ch. 6 Process Selection and Facility Layout
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  1. What are the different Process Selections?
    • Job Shop
    • Batch
    • Repetitive
    • Continuous
  2. What are the different Layouts?
    • Product
    • Process - JB, Batch, Repetitive, Continuous
    • Fixed-Position
    • Hybrid/Combination - Cellular, Flexible Manufacturing
  3. Product Layout AKA Serial Layout (Sequential) - Definition and which process or processes does it include? Give an example
    • Layout that uses standardized processingn operations to achieve smooth, rapid, high volume flow
    • Includes: Repetitive or Continuous Processing
    • Ex: Cafeteria - Workflow in order. Station 1->2->3
  4. Advantages of Product Layout
    • Routine accounting, purchasing & Inventory
    • Low unit & material handling cost (cuz high volume)
    • High rate of output & utilization of labor & equipment
    • Labor Specialization
  5. Disadvantages of Product Layout
    • Repetitive job--> Low morale & opp for advancement, repetitive stress injuries
    • Poorly skilled workers --> Low maintenance of equipment & quality of output
    • Fairly inflexible to changes in volume & product/process design
    • Highly susceptible to shutdowns
    • Needs preventive maintenance, quick repairs, spare-parts inventories
    • No individual incentive plans
  6. U-Shaped Production Line
    • Half the length of a straight production line
    • Permits communication among workers
    • Minimize material handling - Materials enter the plant at the same point that finished products leave
  7. Process Layout AKA Functional Layout
    • Layout that can handle varied processing requirements
    • Used for Intermittent Processing
    • Includes: Job Shop & Batch Processing
    • Ex: Hometown Buffet, Emergency floor in a hospital
  8. Advantages of Process Layout
    • Can handle a variety of processing requirements.Ex: Hospitals, colleges, banks, auto-repair shops
    • Equipment not vulnerable to failures and less costly
    • Individual incentive plans possible
  9. Disadvantages of Process Layouts
    • Accounting, purchasing & Inventory control more involved
    • submit
    • High In-process inventory
    • Higher Unit Cost - Inefficient
    • Challenging routing and scheduling
    • Low equipment utilization (less than 50%)
    • Low supervision - cuz of complexities
    • Slow material handling
    • Special attention for each product or customer
  10. Fixed Position Layout
    • Layout where projects remain stationary and workers, materials and equipment are moved as needed
    • Ex: Caterpillar (Large industrial Machines/Projects), Airplanes, Dams, Navy Ships, Power Plants, Buildings.
  11. What nature of the product dictates a fixed position layout
    • Weight
    • Size
    • Bulk
  12. Fixed position layout info
    **** Slide info***
  13. Combination / Hybrid Layout
    • Mixture of Process & Production Layout
    • Ex: Super Market - Market (Process Layout), Stockroom & cash registers conveyor belts (Product Layout)
    • Ex: Hospital - Hospital (Process Layout), doctors, meds, nurses, special equip work around a stationed patient (Fixed Position Layout)
  14. Cellular Layout
    *** look up book and slide for info*** and look at the example layout of cellular layout
  15. Group Technology
    The grouping into part families of items with similar design (all circular, square, etc.) or manufacturing characteristics
  16. What is ALB?
  17. You choose a process by considering these 3 factors.
    • Variety in products
    • Flexibility
    • Volume in Demand
  18. Variety in products
    • How much variety in products will the system need to handle?
    • How much a product changes from one customer to the next

    Ex: Gas (Standardized) , Glasses (Custom Made)
  19. Volume in Demand
    • What is the expected volume of output.
    • Ex: Gas (made fast), Glasses (Not made in advance)
  20. Flexibility in equipment: how is it determined?
    Determined by Variety in product & Volume in demand
  21. Job Shop
    • Ex: Eye Glasses (AED), Emergency Room, Appliance Repair
    • A manufacturing facility that generates a variety of products
    • High Variety & Flexibility
    • Low Volume - small jobs
    • Intermittent Processing - Producing several different products on the same production line
    • General purpose equipment
    • Highly skilled workers
  22. Batch
    • Ex: Bakery, Classroom Lecture
    • Moderate Variety, Volume, Flexibility
    • Intermittent processing & Skilled workers not as high as Job Shop.
  23. Repetitive AKA Assembly Line
    • Ex: Honda America, Automatic Carwash
    • High Volume - of standardized goods/services
    • Low Flexiblity & Variety
    • Low Skilled workers
    • Repetitive processing
  24. Continuous
    • Ex: Salt, Flour, Petroleum, Steel Production, Water Purification
    • High Volume - Highly standarized products (non-discrete items)
    • No Variety or Flexibility (Specialized equipment)
    • Range - Worker skill depends on system complexity Ex: Highly specialized equip = low skill
  25. What are the Process Characteristics?
    ***Put in chart from slide***
  26. Product/Service life cycle: Different types of processes will be needed for different stages, what are they?
    • Introduction: Job Shop, Low Volume
    • Growth: Batch or Repetitive, may need to switch from Job Shop depending on the product type
    • Maturity: Continuous, Could be required
  27. Advantages / Disadvantages of the different Process Layouts.
    *** Add in chart from slide***
  28. Product - Processes Matrix
    *** Add in chart from slide***
  29. Definition of Automation
    Machinery that has sensing and control devices that enables it to operate
  30. CAD
    Computer Aided *****(Automated) Design
  31. CAM
    Computer Aided ***(Automated) Manufacturing
  32. FMS
    • Flexible Manufacturing Systems
    • Grouping machines that include supervisory computer control, automatic material handling, & robots to produce a variety of similiar products.
    • Ex: Video for FORD. switch car models in days versus months without changing the entire process layout cuz machines can adjust to the similiar car design for different Ford models.
  33. CIM
    Computer Intergrated Manufacturing
  34. Functional vs. Cellular Layouts
    **** Chart ****
  35. What are the different Service Layouts?
    • Warehouse & Storage
    • Retail
    • Office- computers = layout dif than before cuz ppl don't have to physically move to transfer paperwork to dif dept.
    • (They must be aesthetically pleasing as well as functional)

    pg. 260
  36. What is one way to improve productivity and reduce costs in services?
    Remove customer from the process as much as possible.

    • Ex: Automation in services. ATM, Electronic rsvp (travel)
    • --> less customization & risk of customer dissatisfaction
    • --> reduce costs & increase productivity

    pg. 260
  37. What is line balancing?
    Process of assigning tasks to workstations in such a way that the workstations have approx equal time requirements.
  38. Unbalanced lines can create...
    create morale problems @ the slower stations for workers who must work continuously.
  39. Cycle Time
    is the maximum time allowed at each workstation to complete its set of tasks on a unit.
  40. Max output equation
    • output = OT / CT
    • OT - Operating Time
    • CT - Cycle Time
  41. Cycle Time equation
    CT = OT / Output
  42. Determine the Minimum Number
    of Workstations Required
    Nmin = Sum of task time / CT
  43. Idle Time AKA Balance Delay
    % of idle time = total idle time per cycle / Nactual x CT
  44. Efficiency of the line equation
    = 100% - Idle time
  45. Preceding Tasks
    Alls tasks you encounter working backwards
  46. what is positional weight
    sum of the task times for itself and all its following tasks.
  47. Line Balancing Rules
    • Some Heuristic (intuitive) Rules:
    • Assign tasks in order of most following tasks.
    • Count the number of tasks that follow
    • Assign tasks in order of greatest positional weight.
    • Positional weight is the sum of each task’s time and the times of all following tasks.
  48. Bottle neck and parallel