citizens' attitudes about political issues, leader, institutions, and events.
Values (or Beliefs):
Basic principles that shape a person's opinions about political issues and events.
A cohesive set of beliefs that forms a general philosophy about the role of government.
Attitude (or Opinion):
A specific preference on a particular issue.
Equality of Opportunity:
A widely shared American ideal that all people should have the freedom to use whatever talents and wealth they have to reach their fullest potential.
Freedom from governmental control.
A system of rule that permits citizens to play a significant part in the governmental process, usually through the election of key public officials.
The induction of individuals into the political culture; learning the underlying beliefs and values on which the political system is based.
Agencies of Socialization:
Social institutions, including families and schools, that help to shape individuals' basic political beliefs and values.
Today this term refers to those who generally support social and political reform; extensive governmental intervention in the economy; the expansion of federal social services; more vigorous efforts on behalf of the poor, minorities, and women; and greater concern for consumers and the environment.
Today this term refers to those who generally support the social and economic status quo and are suspicious of efforts to introduce new political formulate and economic arrangements. Conservatives believe that a large and powerful government poses a thr5eat to citizens' freedom.
The ability to influence government and politics.
Marketplace of Idea:
The public forum in which beliefs and ideas are exchanged and compete.
Scientific instruments for measuring public opinion.
A small group selected by researchers to represent the most important characteristics of an entire population.
A method used by pollsters to select a representative sample in which every individual in the population has an equal probability of being selected as a respondent.
Random Digit Dialing:
A polling method in which respondents are selected at random from a list of ten-digit telephone numbers, with every effort made to avoid bias in the construction of the sample.
Polling error that arises when the sample is not representative of the population being studies, which creates errors in over representing or under representing some opinions.
Polling error that arises based on the small size of the sample.
Failure to identify the true distribution of opinion within a population because of errors such as ambiguous or poorly worded questions.
A polling technique in which the questions are designed to shape the respondent's opinion.
Attitudes and views that are especially important to the individual holding them.
Illusion of Saliency:
The impression conveyed by polls hat something is important to the public when actually it is not.
A shift in electoral support to the candidate whom public opinion polls report as the front-runner.