criteria for disabilities (Autism-MR)

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criteria for disabilities (Autism-MR)
2010-10-15 11:57:20
school psychology

eligibility criteria
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  1. what will be determined for an individual with hearing impairment which is adversely affecting their educational performance after an evaluation of data analysis for an individual with hearing impairment?
    • Some students with deafness or hearing impairment will require special educationservices because their hearing impairment adversely affects their educational
    • performance.
  2. required eval for hearing impairment:
    • A. Social History (Using language of the home, which may include
    • American Sign Language)
    • B. Individual Intelligence (One required)
    • Only performance-based scales can be used as an indicator of intellectual
    • capacity for the children who are hearing impaired. Scales measuring
    • verbal or full scale IQ should never be administered unless the results are
    • to be used for general information and not considered as an estimate of
    • ability level.
    • 4
    • C. Individual Achievement (One required)
    • Administer tests/procedures in a communication system in which the
    • student receives instruction.
    • D. Adaptive Behavior (One required)
    • E. Communicative Abilities (Required as indicated below)
    • 1. Language (Both receptive and expressive language assessments
    • are required. For the child who has a hearing impairment, IQ
    • scores should not be computed from language evaluation test
    • scores.)
    • 2. Phonetic Level Evaluation (One required) includes both -
    • a. Articulation; and
    • b. Suprasegmental qualities of speech (i.e., vocalization,
    • intensity, duration, pitch, etc.
    • 3. Auditory (Listening ability - One required)
    • This is NOT an assessment of receptive language, but an
    • assessment of the child’s auditory skill level. Tests of listening
    • ability must be administered through audition only with no
    • visual cues available.
    • F. Other
    • 1. Visual Perception (One required)
    • 2. Audiological
  3. screening info for hearing impairment
    hearing (should be waved if there has been a comprehensive one done within the last 6 months) and vision

    observations, checklists, anecdotal records
  4. what are some possible referral characteristics of an individual with hearing impairment?
    • a. Turns head to one side to hear better
    • b. Has difficulty in locating source of sounds or speech
    • c. Responds better to environmental noises than to voice
    • 3
    • d. Has problems understanding speech even after a cold
    • subsides
    • e. Poor ability to hear or discriminate between
    • environmental and/or speech sounds
    • f. Has difficulty hearing/understanding in noisy situations
    • E. Physical/Medical
    • 1. History of frequent earaches or ear discharge, or has nasal
    • obstruction with associated mouth breathing or other nasal
    • symptoms
    • 2. Frequent colds, sneezing, earaches, allergies, history of viral
    • infections, high fever, etc.
    • 3. Family history of hearing loss and/or ear disease
    • 4. History of dizziness and balance problems
    • 5. Deformity of the outer ear
    • 6. Deformity of oral facial structures (i.e., cleft palate)
  5. what is the difference between deafness and hearing impairment?
    • deafness: hearing impairment that is so severe that the child is
    • impaired in processing linguistic information through hearing, with or
    • without amplification, that adversely affects educational performance.

    • hearing impairment: an impairment in hearing, whether
    • permanent or fluctuating, that adversely affects a child's educational
    • performance but that is not included under the definition of deafness in
    • this part.
  6. what are some program considerations when discussing individuals with deaf blindness?
    • each individual varies based on severity and their own unique needs.
    • Because of these unique needs,
    • students with deafblindness will need more intensive instruction with significant
    • adaptations to benefit from their instructional program. These adaptations may be
    • necessary in the areas of curriculum and instructional mode, i.e., modifying skills
    • or activities using assistive technology or devices. In addition, the school
    • environment may need modification in order to accommodate the student with
    • deaf-blindness
  7. what is critical when reviewing evaluation data of an individual with deaf blindness?
    what degree of functional hearing and vision the child posesses and the age at onset of loss of each
  8. what is the required evaluation data for deaf blindness?
    • A. Social History
    • B. Individual Intelligence/Cognitive Functioning (One required, using an
    • appropriate measure/procedure)
    • C. Individual Achievement/Functional Skills Assessment (One required,
    • using an appropriate measure/procedure)
    • D. Adaptive Behavior (One required)
    • E. Communicative Abilities (Both receptive and expressive required)
    • F. Other
    • 1. Orientation and mobility assessment (Required)
    • 2. Medical (Required)
    • a. Physical examination
    • b. Specialized (If indicated)
    • 3. Audiological (Required)
    • 4. Ophthalmological (Required)
  9. what screening information is needed for deaf blindness?
    • required: vision and hearing
    • recommended: informal (observation, checklists, basic skills assessment, anecdotal records)
  10. what are some possible referral characteristics for an individual suspected of having deaf blindness?
    • 1) students who have both significant hearing and significant vision impairments with acuities measured or estimated in light of cognitive and adaptive functioning; (2) students who have hearing and vision impairments of a
    • mild to severe degree and additional learning and/or communication disabilities
    • and who may have been diagnosed as having a disease that will affect vision
    • and/or hearing acuity; or (3) students who are multidisabled due to generalized
    • central nervous system dysfunction and exhibit inconsistent responses to visual
    • and auditory stimuli (functionally deaf-blind). Children identified under this
    • disability category are also referred to as having a dual sensory impairment.
  11. deaf blindness means:
    concomitant hearing and visual impairments, the combination of which causes such severe communication and other developmental and educational needs that they cannot be accommodated in special education programs solely for children with deafness or children with blindness.
  12. when discussing program considerations for a child with autism, what is the most beneficial treatment for students?
    a highly structured and purposeful educational program
  13. what is the required evaluation data for autism?
    • A. Social History (Emphasis on developmental history)
    • B. Individual Intelligence (One required)
    • C. Individual Achievement (One required)
    • D. Adaptive Behavior (One required)
    • E. Communicative Abilities (Both receptive and expressive required)
    • F. observation

    • 2. Medical (Required)
    • a. Physical examination
    • b. Specialized, if indicated
  14. what screening information is required for children suspected of autism? (required and recommended)
    • A. Required
    • 1. Hearing
    • 2. Vision

    • B. Recommended
    • 1. Anecdotal records
    • 2. Basic skills inventories
    • 3. Systematic observation
    • 4. Sociometric techniques
  15. what are some "stereotypical" behaviors observed with individuals with autism?
    • 1. May engage in unusual body posturing, finger flicking and toe walking
    • 2. May use repetitive, stereotypic words and phrases
  16. what behavioral problems are associate with autism?
    tantrums, aggression, self-injury and propertydestruction (most likely seen when there is a change in routine)
  17. what communication patterns are exhibited by an individual with autism?
    1. Impaired understanding of spoken language2. Spoken language not used for communication, as in initiating and sustaining social conversation 3. Spoken language often unrelated to situation 4. Articulation usually adequate 5. Expressive skills many times exceed receptive skills AUTISM 2 6. May produce babble jargon, stereotypic or idiosyncratic language 7. May appear deaf although hearing is normal 8. May have abnormal pitch, stress, intonation, rate or rhythm of speech
  18. characteristics of autism
    • 1. Does not approach other people unless help is wanted
    • 2. Treats people like objects to obtain help
    • 3. Rarely seeks or gives comfort
    • 4. Lacks awareness of feelings of others
    • 5. Fails to develop adequate peer relationships
  19. autism
    • a developmental disability significantly affecting verbal and nonverbal communication and social interaction, generally evident before age 3,
    • that adversely affects a child's educational performance. Other characteristics
    • often associated with autism are engagement in repetitive activities and
    • stereotypic movements, resistance to environmental change or change in daily
    • routines, and unusual responses to sensory experiences. The term autism does not
    • apply if a child's educational performance is adversely affected primarily because
    • the child has an emotional disturbance, as defined in § 6.08.3 of these regulations.
    • A child who manifests the characteristics of "autism" after age 3 could be
    • diagnosed as having "autism" if the criteria in this definition are satisfied.
  20. "Emotional disturbance" means a condition exhibiting one or more of the
    • following characteristics over a long period of time and to a marked degree that
    • adversely affects a child's educational performance:
    • A. An inability to learn that cannot be explained by intellectual, sensory or
    • health factors;
    • B. An inability to build or maintain satisfactory interpersonal relationships
    • with peers and teachers;
    • C. Inappropriate types of behavior or feelings under normal circumstances;
    • D. A general pervasive mood of unhappiness or depression; or
    • E. A tendency to develop physical symptoms or fears associated with
    • personal or school problems. The term includes schizophrenia. The term
    • does not apply to children who are socially maladjusted, unless it is
    • determined that they have an emotional disturbance (ED).
  21. Any or a combination of the behaviors listed below may characterize a student with an emotional disturbance, but may also be exhibited by students in other disability categories.
  22. A. Intellectual
    • 1. Intellectual functioning is not as strong an indicator as other
    • referral characteristics
    • B. Academic (That cannot be attributed to intellectual, sensory or health
    • factors)
    • 1. Failure in skill acquisition
    • 2. Severe learning deficiencies given chronological age expectancy
    • 3. Nonattending to class instruction; short attention span
    • 4. Little motivation for academic learning
    • 2
    • C. Behavior
    • 1. Mood swings
    • a. Laughs, cries or becomes very angry without apparent
    • cause at times when others would show different reaction
    • b. Looks depressed almost all the time without regard to
    • circumstances
    • c. Daydreams; sits with a vacant expression doing nothing
    • productive
  23. what communication characteristics are typical for an individual with ED
    1. Does not speak or speaks only when spoken to 2. Speech is unusually fast or slow 3. Speaks with marked dysfluency, stutters, clutters or otherwise demonstrates interruptions in the flow of speech 4. Voice unusually high, low, loud, soft or scratchy 5. Primarily uses jargon, profanity or other speech inappropriate to context
  24. What are physical characteristics often seen in individuals with ED
    1. Complains of physical pain, sensations or discomfort, or physical or bodily impairment in the absence of an organic basis 2. Engages in repetitive, stereotyped motor behavior, such as tics, nailbiting or rocking 3. Habitually sucks thumb or fingers EMOTIONAL DISTURBANCE 4 4. Overcome frequently by drowsiness or sleep during the day; seems tired or without energy
  25. what screening information is need for an individual with ED
    • A. Required:
    • 1. Hearing
    • 2. Vision

    • B. Recommended
    • 1. Formal
    • 2. Informal
    • a. Checklists
    • b. Rating scales
    • c. Anecdotal records
    • d. Self-concept inventories
    • e. Sociometric techniques
    • f. Classroom work samples
  26. what evaluation data is needed for an individual with ED
    • A. Social History
    • B. Individual Intelligence
    • C. Individual Achievement
    • D. Adaptive Behavior
    • E. Communicative Abilities
  27. ....
    social, emotional and academic areas
  28. The primary differences between the individual with "emotional
    disturbance" and other individuals, however, are as follows:
  29. A. The duration of the behavior. The behavior does not occur as an isolated
    • instance, but rather is long standing.
    • B. The intensity or magnitude of the behavior. The behavior is grossly
    • inappropriate for the time and place in which it occurs.
    • C. The rate of the behavior. The behavior happens with a much higher
    • frequency than is expected to occur during a given length of time under
    • normal circumstances. For a student to be eligible under this category, the
    • evaluation data must be analyzed to determine if the behaviors exhibited
    • by the student are of a marked degree, are displayed over an extended
    • period of time and result in an adverse affect on educational performance.
    • Students experiencing behavior problems, but not to the degree that
    • special education and related services are needed, should be considered for
    • referral for other services for which they might be eligible.
    • The analysis of evaluation data also provides information for the
    • development of the educational program. Identification of specific
    • behaviors will assist in determining appropriate interventions/teaching
    • methods for managing the environment, as well as instructional
    • techniques.
  30. For the student with emotional disturbance to succeed, the program should provide for growth in
    social, emotional and academic areas
  31. The following list of basic techniques are
    applicable to any class setting in which students with emotional
    disturbance are being served.
    • 1. Stop misbehavior in time
    • 2. Program for a variety of changes
    • 3. Make tasks clear and orderly and give the student time to complete one task before beginning another
    • 4. Comment positively when the student is attending appropriately to a task
    • 5. Establish limits and maintain consistent, clear ground rules
    • 6. Manage transitional times with quieting down periods between activities
    • 7. Set up "filler" corners, activity centers a student can go to when he has completed required activities
    • 8. Set up a quiet corner where a student can go to be alone, to cry or to calm down
    • 9. Provide success; be sure the material is relevant, interesting and appropriate for the student
  32. Students who have emotional disturbance often display a wide
    discrepancy in academic skillssuch as:
    reading, writing, spelling, arithmetic--are taught along with appropriate interpersonal responses.
  33. for students with ED, interpersonal skills are best learned
    as part of everyday interaction with teachers, peers and other adults. Generally, an appropriately structured environment provides opportunity for naturally occurring social rewards that shape and maintain appropriate behaviors.
  34. One of the major communication problems students with ED have is:
    The ability to communicate with others, one of the basic skills necessary to participate in activities at school, home and in the community is .
  35. Students with emotional disturbance may exhibit difficulties with
    communication in such areas as
    articulation, comprehension and expression of language, voice and/or fluency.
  36. Often it is this ______ ____________ of an emotional condition
    that prevents the student from functioning in the "regular" school
    physical expression
  37. The goal of the instructional program for a child with ED should be to provide intervention
    strategies which will
    eliminate or lessen problematic behaviors and establish appropriate behaviors to facilitate academic achievement and behavioral performance.
  38. "Mental retardation" means
    significantly subaverage general intellectual functioning, existing concurrently with deficits in adaptive behavior and manifested during the developmental period, that adversely affects a child's educational performance.
    • A. Intellectual
    • 1. Subaverage intellectual functioning; performs poorly on verbal and nonverbal intelligence tests
    • 2. Difficulty applying abstract processes, such as conceptualization, generalization, transfer
    • 3. Limited intellectual functioning in areas such as memory, imagination, creativity

    • B. Academic
    • 1. Subaverage learning performance in basic academic skills
    • 2. Experiences difficulty in activities requiring reading and listening comprehension, such as following complex directions, gaining insight into problem situations and generalizing from rules and principles
    • 3. Oral communication skills generally exceed written communication skills 4. Limited in incidental learning acquired through experience

    • C. Behavior
    • 1. Lacks age-appropriate social skills
    • 2. Difficulty in comprehending social situations
    • 3. Low frustration tolerance
    • 4. May exhibit poor self-concept
    • 5. Seeks approval, therefore easily influenced

    • D. Communication
    • 1. Below average for age in language skills
    • 2. Displays limited vocabulary
    • 3. Delayed speech and language
    • 4. Displays articulation disorders
    • 5. Limited written communication skills
    • 6. Slow processing of questions often resulting in delayed responses

    • E. Physical
    • 1. Physical development generally proceeds at a slower rate
    • 2. May manifest acute or chronic health problems
  40. required screening information for MR(other than vision and hearing that's a given)
    • 1. Formal
    • a. Group administered tests of mental ability and/or
    • achievement

    • 2. Informal
    • a. Checklists
    • b. Rating scales
    • c. Anecdotal records
    • d. Basic skills inventories
    • e. Observation
  41. required evaluation data for MR
    • A. Social History
    • B. Individual Intelligence (One required)
    • C. Individual Achievement (One required)
    • D. Adaptive Behavior (One required)
    • E. Communicative Abilities
  42. In making a diagnosis of mental retardation, the AAMR suggests that the
    condition exists if
    • (1) the person's intellectual functioning level is below IQ 70- 75
    • (2) the onset is age 18 or below and
    • (3) there are significant disabilities in two or more adaptive skill areas.
  43. In interpreting evaluation data for an individual suspected of MR, the committee must
    consider the effects of
    cultural and linguistic diversity on communication and behavior. The existence of limitations in adaptive skills should be reflective of the context of community environments typical of the student's age peers.
  44. In developing an IEP for the student with mental retardation, the overall focus is to
    help the student
    develop the skills needed to function as independently as possible in natural environments.
  45. Students with MR may need ________, ____________, and/or __________ in
    order to receive their educational program in the least restrictive setting
    appropriate to their needs.
    adaptations, modifications and/or accommodations
  46. for MR a behavior management
    plan may be a necessary part of the IEP to address
    appropriate behaviors to be taught or increased, behaviors to be decreased and interventions to be used with any disruptive and/or noncompliant behavior.