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Sensation of physical or mental suffering or hurt that causes stress or agony to the one experiencing it.
- Rapid onset
- Mild to severe
- Acts as protective measure
- Dissapears when resolved
- Lasts longer than typical healing period
- Periods of exacerbation and remission
- Difficult for patient to describe, poorly localized
- Often perceived as meaningless
- May lead to anger, depression, dependency, frustration
- Involves the skin or subcutaneous tissue
- Example: paper cut
- Originates in bones, ligaments, joints
- Example - sprained ankle
Originates in body organs
Results from an injury to or abnormal functioning of the CNS.
Pain is moderate and superficial, acute
Pain is severe deep and chronic
Perceived at source of pain and extends to nearby areas
Pain perceived in one area bit source is in another
Pain that is highly resistant to relief
Painful sensation perceived in a missing body part
Amount of pain stimulation a person needs in order to feel pain (lowest intensity)
- Point at which person is no longer willing to endure pain
- Varies and influenced by psychological and socio-cultural factors.
- Also need to look at the meaning of pain
- Verbalization of pain
- Aggravating fators
- alleviating factors
- Behaioral responses
- Effects of pain
- Physiologic indicators
Determine if the pain is acute or chronic
Focus is to assist the patient to develop effective pain management strategies
- Establish a trusting relationship
- Manipulate factors affecting the pain experience
- Initiate non pharmacologic measures
Drugs that are typically used for other purposes but enhance the effects of opioids by providing additional relief.
Patient Controlled Analgesia
Medication delivery system that allows the patient to self administer safe doses of opioids
- Manages moderate to severe pain
- Side Effects include - Sedation, nausea, constipation, hypotention.
- WATCH FOR RESPITORY REPRESSION!!!
- Management of Mild to Moderate Pain
- Some over the counter
- May cause Gi bleed or upset
- Watch with pts with bleeding disorders
Physical cause of pain cannot be identified
Nerves that transmit pain
Substances that either excite or inhibit
Activation of Pain Receptors
Humor - Music - Disrtraction - Imagery - Relaxation - Hot and cold therapy - Massage - Touch
Three responses to pain?
Physiologic, behavioral and affective
The activation of pain receptors.
Gate control Theory
describes the transmission of painful stimuli and recognizes a relation between pain and emotions