Card Set Information
For Exam 2
Sensation of physical or mental suffering or hurt that causes stress or agony to the one experiencing it.
Mild to severe
Acts as protective measure
Dissapears when resolved
Lasts longer than typical healing period
Periods of exacerbation and remission
Difficult for patient to describe, poorly localized
Often perceived as meaningless
May lead to anger, depression, dependency, frustration
Involves the skin or subcutaneous tissue
: paper cut
Originates in bones, ligaments, joints
Example - sprained ankle
Originates in body organs
Results from an injury to or abnormal functioning of the CNS.
Pain is moderate and superficial, acute
Pain is severe deep and chronic
Perceived at source of pain and extends to nearby areas
Pain perceived in one area bit source is in another
Pain that is highly resistant to relief
Painful sensation perceived in a missing body part
Amount of pain stimulation a person needs in order to feel pain (lowest intensity)
Point at which person is no longer willing to endure pain
Varies and influenced by psychological and socio-cultural factors.
Also need to look at the meaning of pain
Verbalization of pain
Effects of pain
Determine if the pain is acute or chronic
Focus is to assist the patient to develop effective pain management strategies
Establish a trusting relationship
Manipulate factors affecting the pain experience
Initiate non pharmacologic measures
Drugs that are typically used for other purposes but enhance the effects of opioids by providing additional relief.
Patient Controlled Analgesia
Medication delivery system that allows the patient to self administer safe doses of opioids
Manages moderate to severe pain
Side Effects include - Sedation, nausea, constipation, hypotention.
WATCH FOR RESPITORY REPRESSION!!!
Management of Mild to Moderate Pain
Some over the counter
May cause Gi bleed or upset
Watch with pts with bleeding disorders
Physical cause of pain cannot be identified
Nerves that transmit pain
Substances that either excite or inhibit
Activation of Pain Receptors
Humor - Music - Disrtraction - Imagery - Relaxation - Hot and cold therapy - Massage - Touch
Three responses to pain?
Physiologic, behavioral and affective
The activation of pain receptors.
Gate control Theory
describes the transmission of painful stimuli and recognizes a relation between pain and emotions