Pain

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Author:
Johng9999
ID:
40721
Filename:
Pain
Updated:
2010-10-22 14:00:47
Tags:
Nursing
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Description:
For Exam 2
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  1. Pain
    Sensation of physical or mental suffering or hurt that causes stress or agony to the one experiencing it.
  2. Acute Pain
    • Rapid onset
    • Mild to severe
    • Acts as protective measure
    • Dissapears when resolved
  3. Chronic Pain
    • Lasts longer than typical healing period
    • Periods of exacerbation and remission
    • Difficult for patient to describe, poorly localized
    • Often perceived as meaningless
    • May lead to anger, depression, dependency, frustration
  4. Cutaneous Pain
    • Involves the skin or subcutaneous tissue
    • Example: paper cut
  5. Somatic Pain
    • Originates in bones, ligaments, joints
    • Example - sprained ankle
  6. Visceral Pain
    Originates in body organs
  7. Neuropathic pain
    Results from an injury to or abnormal functioning of the CNS.
  8. Sympathetic
    Pain is moderate and superficial, acute
  9. Parasympathetic
    Pain is severe deep and chronic
  10. Radiating pain
    Perceived at source of pain and extends to nearby areas
  11. Referred Pain
    Pain perceived in one area bit source is in another
  12. Intractible pain
    Pain that is highly resistant to relief
  13. Phantom pain
    Painful sensation perceived in a missing body part
  14. Pain threshold
    Amount of pain stimulation a person needs in order to feel pain (lowest intensity)
  15. Pain tolerance
    • Point at which person is no longer willing to endure pain
    • Varies and influenced by psychological and socio-cultural factors.
    • Also need to look at the meaning of pain
  16. Assessment -
    • Verbalization of pain
    • Location
    • Onset/duration
    • Intensity
    • Quality
    • Aggravating fators
    • alleviating factors
    • Behaioral responses
    • Effects of pain
    • Physiologic indicators
  17. Diagnosis
    Determine if the pain is acute or chronic
  18. Planning
    Focus is to assist the patient to develop effective pain management strategies
  19. Implementation
    • Establish a trusting relationship
    • Manipulate factors affecting the pain experience
    • Initiate non pharmacologic measures
  20. Adjuvant Drugs
    Drugs that are typically used for other purposes but enhance the effects of opioids by providing additional relief.
  21. Patient Controlled Analgesia
    Medication delivery system that allows the patient to self administer safe doses of opioids
  22. Opioid Analgesics
    • Manages moderate to severe pain
    • Side Effects include - Sedation, nausea, constipation, hypotention.
    • WATCH FOR RESPITORY REPRESSION!!!
  23. Non-Opioid
    • Management of Mild to Moderate Pain
    • Some over the counter
    • May cause Gi bleed or upset
    • Watch with pts with bleeding disorders
  24. Psychogenic Pain
    Physical cause of pain cannot be identified
  25. Nociceptors
    Nerves that transmit pain
  26. Neurotransmitter
    Substances that either excite or inhibit
  27. Transduction
    Activation of Pain Receptors
  28. Non-Pharmacologic
    Humor - Music - Disrtraction - Imagery - Relaxation - Hot and cold therapy - Massage - Touch
  29. Three responses to pain?
    Physiologic, behavioral and affective
  30. Transduction
    The activation of pain receptors.
  31. Gate control Theory
    describes the transmission of painful stimuli and recognizes a relation between pain and emotions

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