Science Final Semester 1

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Science Final Semester 1
2010-01-12 00:04:44
science semester 1

semester 1 final review
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  1. Which of the following is NOT one of the main areas of Earth Science?
    A. geology
    B. astrology
    C. astronomy
    D. oceanography
    C. astronomy
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  2. What is the study of the atmosphere and the processes that produce weather and climate?
  3. According to the nebular hypothesis, our solar system formed from a huge rotating cloud made of mostly of what two gases?
    helium and hydrogen
  4. Which of Earth's spheres includes the oceans, groundwater, lakes and glaciers?
    the hydrosphere
  5. What is the first layer in Earth's Geosphere?
    the crust
  6. What is the third layer of the Geosphere?
  7. What is the driving force for the movement of the lithosheric plates?
    plate tectonics
  8. The distance, measured in degrees, north and south of the equator is refered to as___.
  9. On the global grid, the prime meridian is at _____.
    0 degrees latitude
  10. The crust and uppermost mantle makeup the rigid outer layer of Earth called the ______.
  11. Differences in elevation are est shown using a __________ map.
  12. On a topographic map, countor lines that form a circle indicate a(n)
  13. What are the two sources of energy for the Earth system?
    earth's interior and the sun
  14. Which of the foolowing is an evironmental hazard created by humans?
    A. air polution
    B. flood
    C. hurricane
    D. earthquakes?
    A. air pollution
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  15. Wich of the following is an example of a renwable reaource?
    A. coal
    B. enery from flowing water
    C. iron
    D. petroleum
    B. energy from flowing water
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  16. Reasources that can be replenished overa relatively short time spanane are called ________?
    renewable resource
  17. A scientific hypotheses can become a theory if ________?
    the hypthesis is tested extensicely and competing hypothesis are eliminated
  18. A preliminary untested explanation that tries to explain how or why things happen in the manner observed is a scientific (best guess) _______.
  19. A scientific ideo that is well tested and widley accepted by the scientific community is cale a scientific ______.
  20. The most abundant element in Earth's continental crust ( by wieght) is ________.
    Oxygen 46.6
  21. What are the building blocks of minerals?
  22. the central region of an atom is called the __________.
  23. The smallest particle of an element is 6 and its mass number is 14, how many neutrons are contained in the nucleus?
  24. An atom that loses or gains electrons is called a(n) _______?
  25. Atoms containing the some numbers of protons and different numbers of neutrons are ________.
  26. The mass number of an atom is otained by totaling the number of _____?
    protons and neutrons
  27. When two or more elements bond together in definite proportions, they form a(n) _____?
  28. which subatimic particles are most involves in chemical bonding?
  29. The main types of chemical bonds are ________.
    ionic, covalent, and metallic
  30. what type of chemical bond forms between postive and negative ions?
  31. What is a naturally occurring, inorganic solid with an orderly crystalline structure and a definite chemical composition?
  32. Minerals for from bodies of water due to the process of _______.
  33. The process of mineral formation from magma is called _______.
  34. Mineral formation caused by high pressures and high temperatures would most likely occur in which of the following environments?
    A. a lava flow
    B. the ocean
    C. a cave
    D. deep within Earth
    D. deep within Earth
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  35. A mineral that contains carbon, oxygen, and the metallic element magnesium would be classified as a(n) ________.
  36. The building block of the silicate minerals is called the ________.
    silicon-oxygen tetrahedron
  37. minerals with the silicon-oxygen structure are classified into what group?
  38. All minerals in the in the sulfate and sulfide groups contain what element?
  39. The most common mineral group in Earth's crust in the _________.
  40. Which of the properties is generally the least useful in identifying minerals?
  41. The appearance or quality of light reflected from the surfae of a mineral is called ______.
  42. The color of the powdered form of a mineral is called_________.
  43. Mohs scale is ue to determine what prperty of minerals?
  44. The tendency of minerals to break along smooth flat surfaces is called ______.
  45. What is the uneven breakage of a mineral called?
  46. What is the density of a mineral with a mass of 41.2 and a volume of 8.2 cm3?
  47. Which mineral will fizz in the contact with hydrochloric acid?
  48. What is a naturally occuring, solid mass of mineral or mineral-like matter?
  49. Name the 3 main types of rocks
    metamorphic, sedimentary, and ignous
  50. All of the energy that drives Earth's rock cycle comes from _________.
    Earth's interior and the sun
  51. What type of rocks are formed by processes powered by the sun?
  52. What is the process of the rock cycle.
    • igneous rock-weathering and erosion-sediment-compaction and cementation-sedimentary rocks-heat and pressure-metamorphic rocks-melting-magma-cooling (and them starts over again)
    • *ignous- heat and pressure- metamorpic
    • *metamorphic- weathering and erosion- sediments
  53. Where is the energy source found that drives the processes that form igneous and metamorphic rocks?
    Earth's Interior
  54. A rock that forms when magma hardens beneath Earth's surface is called an ________.
    Intrusive ignous
  55. A rock that forms that forms from cooling lava is classified as an _____.
    extrusive igneous
  56. What is the use for fossils found in sedimentary rocks?
    interpreting past environments
  57. Fossils are only found in ________ rocks.
  58. Sedimentary rocks with ripple marks suggest that the roks formed _____.
    along a beach or stream bed
  59. What rock- like forming process occurs when hot magma forces its way into rock?
    contact metamorphism
  60. Renewable resources ________.
    can be replenished over months, years or decades
  61. Placer deposits form when _______.
    heavy eroded particles settle out of moving water
  62. Vein deposits are usually produced by _________.
    hydrothermal solutions
  63. Which of the following nonmetallic mineral resources is use both as a building material and as and indudtrial mineral?
  64. The advantages of solar energy include the face that it is ________.
  65. What is one of the drawbacks to hte extensive use of solar energy?
    Mecessary equipment and installation are expensive
  66. What is a problem associated with the increased use of nuclear energy?
    coast of building safe nuclear facilities, major hazards involced in nuclear waste disposal, and a concern over the possibility of a serious nuclear accident
  67. How does nuclear fission produce energy?
    Controlled nuclear chain reaction prodices heat, driving steam turbines to produce energy.
  68. Hydroelectric power is prodiced by _________.
    falling water that turns the turbine
  69. What is the source of geothermal energy?
    very hot minerals deep underground
  70. Fresh water is used for?
    drinking, growing food, and cooking
  71. What amount of Earth's total water supply is usable fresh water?
    less than 1%
  72. The process that occur when physical forces break rock into smaller pices wthout changing the rock's chemical composition is called ________.
    mechanical weathering
  73. which of the following weathering processes involves the constant freezing and thawing of water?
    frost wedging
  74. When water freezes, its volume _______.
  75. The gradual rounding of the corners and edges of angular blocks of ock is called_____________.
    spheroidal weathering
  76. Whenever the characteristics and chemical composition of weatered materials have been altered, they have undergone ________.
    chemical weathering
  77. What would cause the insciption on a marble gravestone to become harder and harder to read over time?
    chemical weathering
  78. The process responcible for moving material sownslpe uner the influence of gravity is called_________.
    mass movement
  79. What is the force that ultimately causes mass movements?
  80. What factor commonly triggers mass movement?
    saturation of surface materials with water, earthquakes and removal of vegitation.
  81. What energy source runs/drives the water cycle?
    the sun
  82. Plants release water into the atmosphere through a process called ______.
  83. The single most important erosional agent on Earth is _________.
    running water
  84. One major cause of floods is _________.
    rapid spring snow melt
  85. Springs form where _________.
    the water table intersects the ground surface
  86. A fault is __________.
    a fracture in the Earth where movement has occured
  87. An earthquakes epicenter is where in relation to an earth quakes focus?
    above the focus
  88. when an earthquake occur's energy radiates in all directions from its source, which is called the ___________.
  89. Earthquakes are usually associated with ________.
  90. The hypothesis that explains the rapid release of which kind of energy stored in roc subjected to great foces?
  91. The adjustments of materials that follow a major earthquake often generate smaller earthquakes called_____________?
  92. Major earthquakes are sometimes preceded by smaller earthquakes called ___________.
  93. The San Fransico eathquake of 1906 occured along what fault?
    the san andreas fault
  94. Which seismic wavestravel most rapidly?
    p waves
  95. Which seismic waves compress and expand rocks in the direction the waves travel?
    p waves
  96. Overall, which siesmic waves are the most destructive?
    surface waves
  97. What is the minimumnumber of siesmic stations tat is needed to determine the location of an earthquakes epicenter?
  98. A travel-time graph can be used to find the _______________-.
    focus of an earthquake
  99. The scale most widely used by scientists for measuring earthquakes is the _________.
    momnet magnitude
  100. what instrument records earthquake waves?
  101. The trace or report that records and earthquake from seismic instruments is called a ______________.
  102. A tsunami can occur when there is veritical movement at a fault under _______.
    the ocean floor
  103. Why do earthquakes oftern cause damaging fires?
    earthquake vibrations can break gas lines , and electrical lines
  104. The Moho is _________.
    boundary between the crust and mantle
  105. earth's inner core is solid because of ____________.
    immense pressure
  106. Wegner's continental drift hypothesis stated that all the coninents once joined togherther to form _________.
    one major super continent
  107. The supercontinent in the continental drift hypothesis was called _________.
  108. One kind of evidence that supports Wegener's hypothesis is that __________.
    fossils of the same organism have been foundon different continents
  109. the geographic distribution of the seimming reptile Desosaurus prvides evidence that ______________.
    South America and Africa were once joined
  110. What was the main reason Wegner's continental drift hypothesis was rejected?
    He could not provide a mechanism for the movement of the continents
  111. According to the theory, the lithosphere is divided into ________.
    7 major plates and many smaller plates
  112. the lithosheric plates move an average of ______________.
    5 cm per year
  113. What kind of plate boundary occurs where two plates grind past each other without distroying or producing lithospere?
    transform fault boundary
  114. What type of boundary occurs where two plates move together, causing one plat to decend into the mantle beneath the other plate?
    transform fault boundary
  115. What is an example of transform fault boundary?
    the san andreas fault
  116. New ocean crust is formed a ________________.
    divergent boundaries
  117. what is the result when divergence occurs between two oceanic plates?
    sea floor spreading
  118. Deep ocean trenches are associated with _______________.
    subduction zone
  119. Continental volcanic arcs are assocated with what type of plate boundary?
    convergent oceani-continental boundary
  120. Strips of alternating magnetic polarities found in rocks in hte ocean basins _____________.
    provide evidence for sea floor spreading
  121. The thermal converction that drives plate motion is caused by _____________.
    an unequal distribution of heat
  122. What are the factors that help determine whether a volcanic eruption will be violent or relatively quiet?
    amount of dissolved gases in the magma, temperatue and composition of magma
  123. As the temperature of lava increases ___________.
    its viscosity
  124. a volcanic bomb is a ___________.
    piece of semi- molten rock ejected as glowing lava
  125. The particles of hardened laca ejected from a volcano are called ______________.
    pyroclastic material
  126. Large particles of hardend lava ejected form a volcano are called __________.
  127. What is the most abundant gas associated iwth colcanic activity?
    water vapor
  128. what type of volcano is built almost entirely from ejected lava fragments?
    cinder cone
  129. The broad, slightly domed-shaped volcanos of hawaii are _________.
    shiel volcanos
  130. a volcano that is fairly symmetrical and has both layers of lava and pyroclastic deposits is a ____________.
    composite come volcano
  131. The most violent volcanic eruptions are associated iwth what type of volcano?
    composite cones
  132. The volcanic landforms at dicergent ocean plate boundaries are ____________.
    oceanic ridges
  133. Most of the active volcanoes on earth are located in a belt know as the
    ring of fire
  134. all changes in the original shape and or size of a rock body are called __________.
  135. A material that undergoes tensional stress tends to
  136. What is not a type of stress seen in rocks?
    treansitional stress
  137. Folding is usually the reult of
    compressional stresses
  138. Tensional stresses commonly cause what kind of fault
    normal faults
  139. A fault in which the hanging wall moves down relative to the footwall is a __________.
    normal fault