Biology Chapter 2

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Author:
laurettaloo22
ID:
40742
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Biology Chapter 2
Updated:
2010-10-08 19:15:47
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biology
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Chapter 2 vocab
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  1. atom
    smallest basic unit of matter
  2. smallest basic unit of matter
    atom
  3. element
    one particular type of atom, and it cannot be broken down into a simpler substance by ordinary chemical means
  4. one particular type of atom, and it cannot be broken down into a simpler substance by ordinary chemical means
    element
  5. compound
    substance made of atoms of different elements bonded together in a certain ratio
  6. substance made of atoms of different elements bonded together in a certain ratio
    compound
  7. ion
    an atom that has gained or lost one or more electrons
  8. at atom that has gained or lost one or more electrons
    ion
  9. ionic bond
    forms through the electrical force between oppositely charged ions
  10. forms through the electrical force between oppositely charged ions
    ionic bond
  11. covalent bond
    forms when 2 electrons share a pair of electrons
  12. forms when 2 electrons share a pair of electrons
    covalent bond
  13. molecule
    2 or more atoms held together by covalent bonds
  14. 2 or more atoms held together by covalent bonds
    molecule
  15. hydrogen bond
    an attraction between a slightly positive hydrogen atom and a slightly negative atom, such as oxygen or nitrogen
  16. at attraction between a slightly positive hydrogen atom and a slightly negative atom, such as oxygen or nitrogen
    hydrogen bond
  17. cohesion
    attraction among molecules of a substance
  18. attraction among molecules of a substance
    cohesion
  19. adhesion
    attraction among molecules of a different substance
  20. attraction among molecules of a different substance
    adhesion
  21. solution
    mixture of substances that is the same throughout - a homogeneous mixture
  22. mixture of substances that is the same throughout - a homogeneous mixture
    solution
  23. solvent
    substance that is present in the greater amount and that dissolves another substance
  24. substance that is present in the greater amount and that dissolves another substance
    solvent
  25. solute
    the substance that dissolves
  26. the substance that dissolves
    solute
  27. acid
    a compound that releases a proton when it dissolves in water (H+)
  28. a compound that releases a proton when it dissolves in water (H+)
    acid
  29. bases
    compounds that remove H+ ions from a solution
  30. compounds that remove H+ ions from a solution
    bases
  31. pH
    a solution's acidity, or H+ ion concentration
  32. a solution's acidity, or H+ ion concentration
    pH
  33. monomer
    each subunit in the complete molecule
  34. each subunit in the complete molecule
    monomer
  35. polymer
    large molecule, or macromolecule, made of many monomers bonded together
  36. large molecule, or macromolecule, made of many monomers bonded together
    polymer
  37. carbohydrates
    molecules composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen; includes sugars and starches
  38. molecules composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen; includes sugars and starches
    carbohydrates
  39. lipid
    nonpolar molecules that include fats, oils, and cholesterol
  40. nonpolar molecules that include fats, oils, and cholesterol
    lipid
  41. fatty acids
    chains of carbon atoms bonded to hydrogen atoms
  42. chains of carbon atoms bonded to hydrogen atoms
    fatty acids
  43. protein
    a polymer made of monomers called amino acids
  44. a polymer made of monomers called amino acids
    protein
  45. Amino Acid
    molecules that contain carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and sometimes sulfur
  46. molecules that contain carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and sometimes sulfur
    amino acid
  47. nucleic acids
    polymers that are made up of monomers called nucleotides
  48. polymers that are made up of monomers called nucleotides
    nucleic acids
  49. chemical reactions
    change substances into different substances by breaking and forming chemical bonds
  50. changes substances into different substances by breaking and forming chemical bonds
    chemical reactions
  51. reactants
    substances changed during a chemical reaction
  52. substances changed during a chemical reacion
    reactants
  53. products
    substances made by a chemical reaction
  54. substances made by a chemical reaction
    products
  55. bond energy
    amount of energy that will break a bond between 2 atoms
  56. amount of energy that will break a bond between 2 atoms
    bond energy
  57. equilibrium
    both reactants and products are made at the same rate
  58. both reactants and products are made at the same rate
    equilibrium
  59. activation energy
    amount of energy that needs to be absorbed for a chemical reaction to start
  60. amount of energy that needs to be absorbed for a chemical reaction to start
    activation energy
  61. exothermic
    chemical reaction releases more energy than it absorbs
  62. chemical reaction releases more energy that it absorbs
    exothermic
  63. endothermic
    chemical reaction abosrbs more energy than it releases
  64. chemical reaction absorbs more energy than it releases
    endothermic
  65. catalyst
    substance that decreases the activation energy needed to start a chemical reaction, and also increases the rate of chemical reaction
  66. substance that decreases the activation energy needed to start a chemical reaction, and also increases the rate of chemical reaction
    catalyst
  67. enzymes
    catalysts for chemical reactions in living things
  68. catalysts for chemical reactions in living things
    enzymes
  69. substrates
    specific reactants that an enzyme acts on
  70. specific reactants that an enzyme acts on
    substrates

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