Psychology.txt

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Author:
alycat22
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40744
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Psychology.txt
Updated:
2010-10-08 20:31:10
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psychology
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Description:
Psychology test: Chapters 1-5
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  1. Developmentalist (developmental scientist)
    Researchers and practitioners whose professional interest lies in the study of human lifespan.
  2. Child Development
    The Scientific study of development from birth through adolescence.
  3. Lifespan development
    The scientific field covering all of the human lifespan
  4. Adult development
    The scientific study of the adult part of life.
  5. Gerontology
    The scientific study of the aging process and older adults
  6. Normative transitions
    Predictable life changes that occur during development.
  7. non-normative transitions
    Unpredictable or atypical life changes that occur during development.
  8. Context of development
    Fundamental markers, including cohort, socioeconomic status, culture, and gender, that shape how we develop throughout the lifespan.
  9. Cohort
    The age group with whom we travel through life.
  10. Baby boom cohort
    The huge age group born between 1946 and 1964.
  11. Average life expectancy
    A person's fifty-fifty chance at birth of living to a given age.
  12. Twentieth-century life expectancy revolution
    The Dramatic increase in average life expectancy that occured during the first half of the twentieth century in the developed world.
  13. Maximum lifespan
    The Biological limit of human life (about 105 years).
  14. Young-old
    People in thier sixties and seventies.
  15. Old-old
    People age 80 and older
  16. Emerging adulthood
    The phase of life that begins after high school, tapers off toward the late twenties, and is devoted to constructing an adult life.
  17. Socioeconomic status (SES)
    A basic marker refering to status on the educational and- especially- income rungs.
  18. Developed world
    the most affluent countries in the world
  19. Developing world
    The more improverished countries of the world.
  20. Collectivist cultures
    Societies that prize social harmony, obedience, and close family connectedness over individual achievement.
  21. Individualistic cultures
    Societies that prize independence, competition, and personal success.
  22. Traditional behaviorism
    The original behavioral world view that focused on charting and modifying only "objective," visible behaviors.
  23. Operant conditioning
    According to the traditional behavioral perspective, the law of learning that determines any voluntary response. Specifically, we act the way we do because we are reinforced for acting in that way.
  24. reinforcement
    Behavioral term for reward.
  25. Cognitive behaviorism (social learning theory)
    A behavioral worldview that emphasizes that people learn by watching others and that our thoughts about the reinforcers determine our behavior. Cognitive behaviorists focus on charting and modifying people's thoughts.
  26. Modeling
    Learning by watching and imitating others.
  27. Self-efficacy
    According to cognitive behaviorism, an internal belief in our competence that predicts whether we initiate activities or persist in the face of failures, and predicts the goals we set.

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