Anatomy

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memaryme12
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40747
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Anatomy
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2010-10-08 20:41:29
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Anatomy
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Anatomy
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  1. Anatomy
    human body structures
  2. Physiology
    Human body function
  3. Embryology
    Human Anatomy Before birth
  4. Regional Anatomy
    Anatomy one are of the body at a time
  5. Systemic Anatomy
    Anatomy one system at a time
  6. Topographical Anatomy-Surface Anatomy
    Anatomy from the outside
  7. Gross Anatomy-Macroscopic Anatomy
    Anatomy with naked eye
  8. Histology-Microscope Anatomy
    Anatomy with microscope
  9. Morbid Anatomy-Pathological Anatomy
    Anatomy affected by disease
  10. Biology
    Study of all living things
  11. Botany
    Study of plant life
  12. Zoology
    Study of animal life
  13. Characteristics of Life (or Living Things):
    • Movement
    • Responsiveness
    • Growth
    • Reproduction
    • Respiration
    • Digestion
    • Absorption
    • Circulation
    • Assimilation
    • Excretion
  14. Movement
    ability to change position
  15. Responsiveness
    reaction to changes
  16. Growth
    Increases in size
  17. Reproduction
    Production of new organisms
  18. Respiration
    Breathing
  19. Digestion
    Breakdown of foods into simpler forms
  20. absorption
    passage of digested foods into body fluids
  21. circulation
    movement of body fluids from place to place
  22. assimilation
    changing of absorbed substances into other forms
  23. excretion
    removal of wastes from the body
  24. level of organization of the body
    • Cell
    • Tissue
    • Organ
    • System
    • Organism
  25. Chemical Level
    Atoms, molecules, protoplasm
  26. cell
    basic unit of structure and function in the human body
  27. Tissue
    a group of similar cells arranged for the performance of a particular function
  28. Organ
    a group of different tissues arranged for the performance of a particular function
  29. System
    a group of different organs arranged for the performance of a particular function
  30. Organism
    a group of different systems arranged to make-up the complete body
  31. System-Organ System of the Human Body:
    • Integumentary System
    • Circulatory System
    • Skeletal System
    • Muscular System
    • Digestive System
    • Respiratory System
    • Endocrine System
    • Urinary System
    • Reproductive System
    • Nervous System
  32. Integumentary System
    the skin
  33. Circulatory System
    the heart, vessels, blood & lymph including Lymphatic System
  34. Skeletal System
    the bones
  35. Muscular System
    the muscles
  36. Digestive System
    the alimentary canal (food passage)
  37. Respiratory System
    the lungs, nose, breathing
  38. Endocrine System
    • the ductless glands
    • (release to the blood stream)
  39. Urinary System
    the kidneys, bladder and ducts or Excretory System
  40. Reproductive System
    the sex glands and structures
  41. Nervous System
    the brain, spinal cord, and nerves
  42. Standard Position of a Cadaver is
    Anatomical
  43. A dead human body used in anatomical study is referred to as a
    cadaver
  44. in anatomical study the cadaver is always
    assumed to be standing erect, with arms hanging at the sides of the body, the palms of the hands facing fowards, and the body facing the observer
  45. medial
    pertaining to, or located toward, te median plane of the body or a body part
  46. lateral
    pertaining to, or located away from, the median plane of the body or a body part
  47. superior
    (top of head)
    pertaining to, or located toward, the upper portion of the body or a body part
  48. inferior
    (bottom of feet)
    pertaining to, or located toward, the lower porition of the body or body part
  49. anterior (ventral)
    pertaining to, or located toward, the front of the body or a body part
  50. posterior (dorsal)
    pertaining to, or located, the back of the body or a body part
  51. deep (central)
    pertaining to, or located toward, the interior of the body or a body part
  52. superficial (periphial)
    pertaining to, or located toward, the surface of the body or a body part
  53. visceral
    pertaining to the organs contained within the body cavities
  54. parietal
    pertaining to the wall of a body cavity
  55. prone
    a position of the body or a body part in which it is turned face down
  56. supine
    a position of the body or a body part in which it is turned face down
  57. peripheral (superficial)
    pertaining to the surface of the body or body part
  58. central (deep)
    pertaining to the center of the body or a body part
  59. proximal
    located closer to the point of attachment. (This term is usually reserved for use when referring to the extremities)
  60. distal
    located farther from the point of attachment (this term is usually reserved for use when referring to the extremities)
  61. Planes of the body
    • Median Plane or Midsagittal Plane
    • Sagittal Plane
    • Coronal Plane
    • Transverse Plane or Horizontal Plane
  62. Median Plane or Midsagittal Plane
    • an imaginary vertical plane passing through the body from anterior to posterior so as to divide the body into two symmetrical halves
    • (divides in equal halves)
  63. Sagittal Plane
    an imaginary vertical plane passing through the body from anterior to posterior so aw to be parallel to the medial plane
  64. Coronal Plane or Frontal Plane
    • an imaginary vertical plane passing through the body from side to side so as to be at right angles to the median plane
    • (dividing into anterial or posterial)
  65. Transverse Plane or Horizontal Plane
    an imaginary plane passing through the body hoizontally
  66. Linear Guide
    an imaginary line drawn on the surface of the body to represent the approximate location of some internal structure
  67. Anatomical Guide
    a description of the position of a body part in relation to the position of adjacent parts
  68. Anatomical Limits
    the point of origin and point of termination of a body part in relation to adjacent structures
  69. Body Cavities
    • Dorsal
    • Ventral
    • Orbital
    • Nasal
    • Oral or Buccal Cavity
  70. Dorsal Cavity
    • the cavity that is formed jointly by the cavity within the cranium and the cavity within the spinal column
    • a) Cranial Cavity
    • b) Spinal Cavity
  71. Cranial Cavity
    the cavity within the cranium, containing the brain
  72. Spinal Cavity
    the cavity within the spinal column, containing the spinal cord
  73. Ventral Cavity
    the large cavity contained within the trunk of the body
  74. Thoracic Cavity
    the large cavity within the thorax, containing the thoracic viscera
  75. Pleural Cavities
    the two cavities within the thorax, one on either side, containing the lungs
  76. Mediastinal Cavity or Mediastinum
    the cavity within the thorax, between the lungs. it is rectangular in shape and contains all of the thoracic viscera except the lungs. it is bounded by the sternum, anteriorly; by the thoracic vertebrae, posteriorly, by the lungs, laterally; by the base of the neck, superiorly; and by the diaphragm, inferiorly
  77. Pericardial Cavity
    the cavity within the pericardium
  78. Abdominal-Pelvic Cavity or Abdominal Cavity
    the cavity within the trunk of the body, between the diaphragm and the floor of the pelvis
  79. Abdominal Cavity Proper
    that portion of the abdominal-pelvic cavity between the diaphragm and the superior border of the pelvis
  80. Pelvic Cavity
    that portion of the abdominal-pelvic cavity within the pelvis
  81. Peritoneal Cavity
    • the cavity within the sac formed by the parietal Peritoneum
    • (
  82. Orbital Cavity (paried)
    the cavity on either side, on the anterior portion of the skull, containing the eyeball
  83. Nasal Cavities (paried)
    the cavities within the nose, It is divided into right and left portions by a vertical septum formed mainly by the vomer bone
  84. Oral Cavity or Buccal Cavity
    the cavity within the mouth
  85. Bestnial
    between the lips & teeth
  86. Vomer bone
    forms part of nasal septum
  87. Epithelial Tissue
    linings and coverings of the body. Produces secretions to lubricate and protect surfaces.
  88. Endothelium
    inside lining of the vascular (circulatory system) system
  89. Endocardium
    inside layer (or lining) of the heart
  90. Tunica Intima (interna)
    inside lining of a vessel (artery, vein, or lymph vessel)
  91. mesothelium
    outside covering of the hollow organs of the body or the lining of the body cavities. Will always include the Serous Membranes.
  92. Serous Membranes
    covers hollow structure that are sealed off from the outside air
  93. pleura (or pleural membrane)
    lining of the pleural cavities. parietal pleura lines the rib cage. Visceral pleura covers each lining.
  94. pericardium (or pericardial membrane)
    • lining of the pericardial cavity
    • Pericardium (or parietal pericardium) lines the pericardial sac
    • epicardium ( or visceral pericardium) is the outer layer (or covering) of the heart
  95. peritoneum
    the outside covering of most of the organs in the abdominal cavity
  96. tunica adventitia (externa)
    outside covering of a vessel (artery, vein or lymph vessel)
  97. epithelial tissue proper
    all epithelial tissue that is not endothelium or mesothelium
  98. epidermis
    the outer most covering of the skin (integumentary system)
  99. mucous membranes
    the epithelial tissues that line those structures that open to the outside of the body. Inside lining of the: Respiratory System, Digestive System, Urinary System, and Reproductive System. Endometrium- the inside lining of the uterus (nose to lung)
  100. glandular epithelium
    make up the glands of the body
  101. Connective Tissue
    • the binders of the body, also serve as the framework of the body
    • ex:
    • bone (and teeth)
    • tendons
    • fascia
    • hematopoietic tissue (blood and lymph)
    • cartilage
    • ligaments
    • adipose (fat)
  102. muscle (or muscular tissue)
    the muscles of the body

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