Antibiotics I

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Author:
Kristin
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40761
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Antibiotics I
Updated:
2010-10-08 20:55:30
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Drug Cards
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Drug Cards
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  1. what are antibiotics used for? what should they not be used for?
    they are used for bacterial infections; should not be used for viruses, fungi, or parasites
  2. What is something important to tell a woman who is taking an antibiotic and is on birth control?
    that the antibiotic may decrease the effectiveness of the birth control
  3. what are the causes of "bugs" changing and becoming resistant to antibiotics?
    antibiotics being misused (common cold), incomplete duration of therapy
  4. what are the two ways that antibiotics can affect bacteria? Describe what it means.
    Bacteriostatic, prevents bacteria from dividing; bactericidal, kills the bacteria
  5. What is MRSA?
    methicillin resistant staphylococcus aureus
  6. What is the most commonly used antibiotic class?
    penicillins
  7. what are the uses for penicillin drugs?
    used for skin, teeth, upper respiratory infections (and others), also can be used for prophylaxis
  8. what are penicillins made from?
    mold
  9. which drug class(es) is/are a beta lactam antibiotic(s)?
    penicillins and cephalosporins
  10. what are some adverse effects to penicillins?
    nausea, diarrhea, rash
  11. what are some patient counseling notes for penicillins?
    take on empty stomach, take at even intervals, finish full course of therapy
  12. according to power point what do beta lactam rings do?
    they bind to bacteria to destroy it
  13. what occured in some bacteria that allowed them to be resistant to beta lactams?
    they developed beta lactamases which breaks apart the beta lactam ring of the antibiotic deactivating the antibiotic
  14. What was added to amoxicillin to help aid against beta lactamases? what does it do?
    clavulanic acid (as in augmentin); it is a beta lactamase inhibitor and it protects the beta lactam
  15. What are cephalosporins?
    antibiotic drug class similar to penicillins
  16. How many generations of cephaloporins are there? What are they divided based on?
    4 generations; divided based on spectrum of activity
  17. what is the chance of a patient being allergic to cephalosporins if they are allergic to penicillins?
    approx 10%
  18. What are the first generation cephalosporins? what types of bugs do they mostly treat?
    keflex, duricef; treat mostly gram positive bugs
  19. what are the 2nd generation cephalosporins?
    ceftin and cefzil
  20. what is the listed 3rd generation antibiotic in the powerpoint?
    omnicef
  21. what do the 2nd and 3rd genertation cephalosporins have increased coverage against?
    gram negative bugs
  22. what are some adverse effects of cephalosporins?
    nausea, diarrhea, hives
  23. what are some patient counseling notes for cephalosporins?
    take on empty stomach if possible, take at even intervals, complete full course of therapy
  24. are fluoroquinolones broad or narrow spectrum?
    broad spectrum
  25. how many generations are there in fluoroquinolones?
    four generations
  26. which class of antibiotics can cause irreversible nerve damage and spontaneous tendon damage?
    fluoroquinolones
  27. what are some adverse effects of quinolones?
    nausea, rash, dirrhea
  28. what is some patient education associated with quinolones?
    complete full course of therapy--resistance can develop rapidly; take with 8 ounces of water; skin sensitivity to sun may occur; do not take with antacids, multi-vitamins (separate dose by 2 hours)
  29. What is the brand name for amoxicillin? What drug class is it? Does the suspension have to be refrigerated?
    Amoxil; penicillin drug; yes refrigerate and discard after 14 days
  30. What is the brand name for amoxicillin & potassium clavulanate? what is the drug class? does the suspension have to be refrigerated?
    augmentin; penicillin drug; yes refrigerate and discard after 10 days
  31. What is the brand name for penicillin V Potassium? what is the drug class? does the suspension have to be refrigerated?
    Veetids; penicillin drug; yes refrigerate
  32. What is the brand name for cephalexin? what is the drug class? does the suspension have to be refrigerated?
    keflex; cephalosporin; yes refrigerate and discard after 14 days
  33. What is the brand name for cefadroxil? what is the drug class? does the suspension have to be refrigerated?
    Duricef; cephalosporin drug; yes refrigerate and discard after 14 days
  34. What is the brand name for cefuroxime? what is the drug class? does the suspension have to be refrigerated?
    Ceftin; cephalosporin drug; no, do not refrigerate, discard after 10 days
  35. What is the brand name for cefdinir? what is the drug class? does the suspension have to be refrigerated?
    Omnicef; cephalosporin drug; do not refrigerate, discard after 10 days
  36. What is the brand name for ciprofloxacin? what is the drug class? does the suspension have to be refrigerated?
    Cipro, quinolone drug; refrigeration does not matter, discard after 14 days
  37. What is the brand name for levofloxacin? what is the drug class?
    Levaquin; quinolone drug
  38. What is the brand name for moxifloxacin? what is the drug class?
    avelox; quinolone drug

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