Anatomy Ch 19
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Anatomy Ch 19
Anatomy Endocrine system
Anatomy The Endocrine system
The nervous system and endocrine system work together to do what?
To monitor and adjust physiological activities for the regulation of homeostasis.
Which system performs short-term "crisis-management"?
The Nervous System
Which system regulates long-term, on-going metabolic processes?
The Endocrine System
What are Endocrine Cells?
They release chemicals called hormones that alter the metabolic activities of many different tissues and organs simultaneously.
The Endocrine system consists of all endocrine cells and tissues that do what?
They release their secretory products into interstitial fluids.
What are the four groups hormones can be divided into?
Amino Acids derivatives
What do to actions do Enzymes controll?
Cellular activities and metabolic reactions.
What exerts their effects by modifying the activities of target cells?
What are the 3 responses that control negative feedback that usually regulates in the endocrine activity?
1. the endocrine cells releases its hormones in response to changes in the composition of the extracellular fluid.
2. the target cell is stimulated.
3. the target cell restores homeostasis.
What are 3 things that control the Endocrine activity?
1. Neural Activity
2. Positive Feedback
3. Negative Feedback
In what ways do the hypothalamus regulate endocrine and neural activities?
1. Controls the output of the adrenal medulla, an endocrine component of the sympathetic division of the ANS
2. Produces two hormones of its own, which released from the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland
3. controls the activity of the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland through the production of regulatory hormones.
What are regulatory hormones?
Releasing Hormones (RH) and inhibiting hormones (IH)
What gland release 9 important peptide hormones?
Where are the pituitary gland hormones synthesized and released?
Two are synthesized in the hypothalamus and released at the posterior lobe of the pituitary and seven are synthesized in the anterior lobe of the pituitary.
What are two other names of the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland?
neurohypophysis or pars nervosa
What does the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland produce?
It produces ADH and oxytocin.
What do Neurohypophysis or pars nervosa contain?
They contain the axons of the same hypothalamic neurons.
Neurons within what two structures manufacture antidiuretic hormone and oxytocin, respectively?
Supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei
What two things do ADH do?
1. Releases the amount of water lost at the kidneys
2. It is released in response to a rise in the concentration of electrolytes in the blood or a fall in blood volume.
In Women what does oxytocin do?
1. It stimulates smooth muscle cells in the uterus and contractile cells in the mammary glands
2. It is released in response to stretched uterine muscles and/or suckling of an infant
In men what does oxytocin do?
It stimulates prostatic smooth muscle contractions.
What is another name for Anterior lobe of the pituitary gland?
What are the subdivision of Adenophypophysis?
1. Large pars distalis
2. Slender Pars intermedia
3. Pars tuberalis
Adenohypophysis is highly what?
The flood of the hypothalamus is the?
The neurons from the tubular area release?
Regulatory factors into the surround interstitial fluids.
What is released that controls endocrine cells in the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland?
Releasing factors, inhibiting factors, or some combination of both.
These secretions enter the circulation through ________ capillaries that contain open spaces between their epithelial calls.
Blood vessels, called ___________, form an unusual vascular arrangement that connects the hypothalamus and anterior lobe of the pituitary gland.
What does the hypophyseal portal system ensure?
It ensures that all of the blood entering the portal vessels will reach the intended target cells before returning to the general circulation.
What are the hormones released by the pars distalis?
1. Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)
2. Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)
3. Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)
4. Luteinizing hormone (LH)
5. Prolactin (PRL)
6. Growth Hormone (GH)
What do Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) do?
It triggers the release of the thyroid hormones.
What do Adrenocorticotropic hormone(ACTH) do?
It stimulates the release of glucocorticoids by the adrenal gland.
What do Follicle-stimulating hormone(FSH) do?
It stimulates estrogen secretion(estradiol) and egg development in women and sperm production in men.
What does luteinizing hormone (LH) do?
It Causes ovulation and production of progentine(progeterone) in women and androgens (testostrone) in men.
What does Prolactin (PRL) do?
It stimulates the development of the mammary glands and the productions of milk
What does Growth Hormone (GH) do?
It stimulates cells' growth and replication
What are Melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH)?
They released by the par intermedia, stimulates melanocytes to produce melanin.
What is Humoral stimuli?
It is changes in the composition of the extracellular fluid.
Where does the thyroid gland store it hormones?
What lies inferior to the thyroid cartilage of the larynx?
What does the thyroid gland consist of?
Two lobes connected by a narrow isthmus.
What happens in the Thyroid Gland when stimulated by TSH?
The follicle cells reabsorb the thyroglobulin, break down the protein, and release the thyroid hormones, thyroxine(TX or T4) and triiodothyronine(T3) into the circulation.
What do C-cells produce?
What does Calcitonin do?
It helps decreases calcium ion concentrations in body fluids by inhibiting osteoclast activities and stimulating calcium ion excretion at the kidneys.
Actions of calcitonin are opposed by those of ________ produced by the parathyroid glands?
Four _________ are embedded in the posterior surface of the thyroid gland.
The principal cells of the parathyroid produce what?
Parathyroid hormone (PTH) in response to lower-than-normal concentrations of calcium ions.
What does Parathyroid Hormone (PTH) do?
1. Stimulates osteoclast activity
2. Stimulates osteoblast activity to a lesser degree
3. Reduces calcium loss in the urine
4. Promotes calcium absorption in the intestine
5. Decrease PTH could result in muscle spasm
The parathyroid glands and C cells of the thyroid gland maintain what?
Calcium ion level within relatively narrow limits.
A decrease level of PTH causes what?
The ________, embedded in a connective tissue mass in the thoracic cavity, produces several hormones that stimulate the development and maintenance of normal immunological defenes.
_________ is produced by the thymus promote the development and maturation of lymphocytes.
The _______ rests on the superior border of each kidney.
Each gland is surrounded by a fibrous _____ and is subdivided into a superficial adrenal cortex and an inner adrenal medulla.
The adrenal cortex manufactures steroid hormones called what?
Adrenocortical steroids (Corticosteroids)
The cortex can be subdivided into three separate areas:
1. The outer zona glomerulosa
2. The middle zona fasciculata
3. The inner reticularis
What does the outer zona glomerulosa do?
It releases mineralcorticoids(MC), principally aldoesterone, which restrict sodium and water losses at the kidneys, sweat glands, digestive tract, and salivary glands.
What does Zona glomerulosa respond to?
It responds to the presence of the hormone angiotensin II, which appears after the enzyme renin has been secreted by kidney cells exposed to a decline in blood volume and/or blood pressure.
What is the middle zona fasciculata?
Is three quart of adrenal cortex produces glucocorticoids (GC), notably cortisol and corticosterone.
What three hormones accelerate the rates of both glucose synthesis and glycogen formation, especially in liver cells.
What three hormones accelerate the rates of both glucose synthesis and glycogen formation, especially in liver cells?
Glucocorticoids (GC), cortisol, and corticosterone
What does the inner zona reticularis do?
It produces small amounts of sex hormones called androgens.
Damage to what results in an increase urine volume and increased water retention?
What do each adrenal medulla contain?
Clusters of Chromaffin Cells.
What does Chromaffin cells resemble what?
Resemble the sympathetic ganglia neurons.
Chromaffin cells secrete what?
they secrete either epinephrine (75-80 percent) or norepinephrine (20-25 percent)
Catecholamines trigger what?
Cellular utilization and mobilization of energy reserves.
Endocrine cells in both kidneys and heart produce hormones that are important for the regulation of what?
Blood Pressure and blood volume, blood oxygen levels, and calcium and phosphate ion absorption.
The kidney produces the enzyme _____ and the peptide hormone ________ when blood pressure or oxygen levels in the kidneys decline.
Kidney secretes the steroid hormone _______ when parathyroid hormone is present.
What is Renin?
Renin catalyzes the conversion of circulating angiotensinogen to angiotensin I.
In lung capillaries, Renin is converted to ___________, the hormone that stimulate the production of aldosterone in the adrenal cortex.
What stimulates red blood cell production by the bone marrow?
What Stimulates the absorption of both calcium and phosphate in the digestive tract?
Specialized muscle cells of the heart produce ___________ and _________ when blood pressure or blood volume become excessive.
Atrial Natriuretic Peptide (ANP) and Brain Natriuretic Peptide (BNP)
What do Atrial Natriunretic Peptide (ANP) and Brain Natriuretic Peptide (BNP) Stimulate?
THey stimulate water and sodium ion loss at the kidneys, eventually reducing blood volume.
What is a nodular organ occupying a space between the stomach and small intestine.
Pancreas contain what two cells?
Exocrine and Endocrine cells.
The _________ secretes an enzyme-rich fluid into the lumen of the digestive tract.
Cells of the Endocrine pancreas from clusters called?
Pancreatic islets (Islets of Langerhans)
Each Pancreatic Islet containt four cells types:
1. Alpha cells
2. Beta cells
3. Delta cells
4. F cells.
What are Alpha Cells of Pancreatic Islets?
THey produce glucagon to raise blood glucose levels.
What are beta cells of Pancreatic Islets?
They secrete insulin to lower blood glucose levels
What are Delta Cells of Pancreatic Islets?
They secrete somatostatin(growth hormone-inhibiting factor) to inhibit the production and secretion of glucagons and insulin.
What are F cells of Pancreatic Islets?
They Secrete pancreatic polypeptide (PP) to inhibit gallbladder contractions and regulate the production of some pancreatic enzymes.
Pancreatic Polypeptide(PP) may also help control what?
The rate of nutrient absorption by the GI tract.
Insulin lovers blood glucose by _______ the rate of glucose uptake and utilization by most body cells.
Glucagons raises blood glucose by ______ increasing the rates of glycogen breakdown and glucose synthesis in the live.
Somatostatin _____ the rates of hormone secretion by alpha and beta cells and slows food absorption and enzyme secretion in the digestive tract.
What of the male testes produce androgens?
What is the most important androgen?
Testosterone promotes what?
Its promotes the production of functional sperm, maintains reproductive-tract secretory glands, influences secondary sexual characteristics, and stimulates muscle growth.
The hormone _______, produced by ________ in the testes, interacts with FSH from the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland to maintain sperm productions at normal levels.
Inhibin; sustentacular cells.
Oocytes develop in _______ in the female ovary.
Follicle cells surrounding the oocytes produce ________ and_________.
Estrogen and Estradiol
What does Estrogen support?
They support the maturation of the oocytes and stimulate the growth of the uterine lining.
What do Active Follicles secrete?
They secrete inhibin, which suppresses FSH release by negative feedback.
After ovulation, the follicle cells remaining with in the ovary reorganize into a _______.
Corpus luteum produces a mixture of estrogens and progestins, especially _______.
Progesterone facilitates what?
The movement of a fertilized egg through the uterine tube to the uterus and stimulates the preparation of the uterus for implantation.
The pineal gland (Epihysis cerebri) contains secretory cells called ___________.
Pinealocytes synthesize what?
What is melatonin?
It slows the maturation of sperm, eggs, and reproductive organs by inhibiting the production of FSH and LH releasing factors from the hypothalamus.
What may establish circadian rhythms?